5 Hacks for “Taskifying” the Coursebook

After a bit of a longer COVID chaos-enforced hiatus than I would have liked, this guest post is from Neil Anderson. It is a little longer than most posts here – but we will excuse that given the the wealth of knowledge and useful insights into incorporating more of a task-based approach into our lessons. In all honesty, his blog (co-written with Neil McCutcheon) has saved me hours in lesson planning and is one of the few that offers lessons that I don’t feel the need to tweak!

Is there a case against coursebooks?

You could be forgiven for feeling that discussion of coursebooks – their pros and in particular their cons – has been done to death in recent years. It’s not, though, a topic that will disappear so long as we continue to use them as the basis of our language courses, whether in private language schools or primary / secondary education. The SLB podcast hosted by Neil McMillan recently covered the topic (https://www.slb.coop/the-slb-podcast/). On the one side, Nick White and Matthew Ellman offered a robust defence of coursebooks, how they are used and the extent to which they matter; on the other, Geoff Jordan reiterated the persuasive arguments against them that he has deployed elsewhere (e.g. https://applingtesol.wordpress.com/2019/03/24/coursebooks-a-recap/).

There was in the end broad agreement that coursebooks are not monolithic, that some are more effective than others, and that in general they serve a need for teachers. What was not really addressed in this particular episode – hopefully it will feature in a follow-up – was Jordan’s central objection to coursebooks being based on a synthetic syllabus.

Synthetic Syllabuses

A synthetic syllabus is organised around the language to be taught; this is divided up into convenient elements (discrete grammatical and lexical items) and these are sequenced in some way (often by perceived difficulty – simpler structures first, more complex ones later); the learner is expected to master them one by one, “synthesising” the knowledge into a communicative whole. Many coursebooks follow a mixed syllabus (with topics and skills as playing a part in organising units) but the approach to language is synthetic – lessons are arranged around gradual mastery of a language point, from analysis to use. PPP (present, practice, produce) is the mainstay of a synthetic syllabus: a language item is studied, practised in more restricted ways and then produced through some form of (hopefully) communicative task.

This is familiar, well-established and comfortable for teachers and learners. So, what is the problem with it? You can argue against it from various perspectives:

  • it presupposes that language items are mastered one at a time, in a linear fashion, and this is not borne out by much SLA (second language acquisition) research; the process is more complicated and does not seem to follow the order dictated by explicit instruction (see Long, 2015, pp.21-25 for a detailed summary);
  • assuming you consider yourself to be a communicative language teacher, authentic production should be a significant lesson event and yet with PPP this is largely relegated to the end of the class: it takes a backseat. Pressures of time and pacing may even mean it does not occur in the lesson (especially in contexts where lessons are only 45 minutes long e.g. secondary schools);
  • it can be input-impoverished: much classroom time is focused on a single structure at the expense of a wider range of grammatical and lexical items;
  • as much time may be spent discussing the language as using the language.

Analytic Syllabuses and TBL/TBLT

An alternative is an analytic syllabus, which is organised according to the communicative purposes for using language rather than individual language items. Learners engage in holistic input and output-oriented tasks and analyse the samples of language they are exposed to.

An example would be a task-based syllabus in which the primary focus of given a lesson is the completion of some form of communicative task – for instance, learners share experiences, or compare opinions, or work together to solve a problem, perhaps using different sources of information (e.g. some form of jigsaw). They do so to achieve an outcome rather than display (temporary) mastery of a single language item. And in doing so, there are opportunities for learners to notice language, to enquire about the language they need and to receive reactive focus on form from the teacher.  

We can argue that task-based learning, or task-based language teaching (TBL / TBLT) potentially confers the following advantages:

  • there is, in theory, motivation to process and use language as there is a goal or outcome for the main task;
  • learners are exposed at different points to a range of samples of language;
  • communicative use of language is the central focal point of the lesson;
  • there is still a focus on form, one that is largely reactive and therefore responds to learners at the point of need.

Following Willis (1996), a task-based sequence is broadly made up of:  

  • a pre-task to ready the students for the task (e.g. set the context, establish and prepare for the task);
  • the task cycle itself (students complete the task, report back on their findings);
  • post-task language focus (e.g. students examine related texts for language, teacher gives feedback on learner output).

With its prioritisation of the task and delayed language focus, it resembles, as Willis notes, PPP “upside down”, albeit with the potential for a much richer focus on language as it does not prioritise a single language point. It is inaccurate to say there is no focus on accuracy; it is just that meaning and fluency comes first, and the language focus emerges from this.

A Third Way? “Taskifying” the coursebook.

There are, though, significant issues with implementing a task-based approach. Even if we want to, most teachers of general English are not free to do so, because we have to use coursebooks. Nor do we have the freedom or resources to carry out extensive needs analysis, as Long (2015) proposes, to identify the target tasks that are useful for our learners.

I think the key question is not whether or not we should use a coursebook, but how we can use it well. My colleague Neil McCutcheon and I have an abiding interest in task-based learning. Over the years as both teachers and teacher educators, we have adopted (and adapted) a few strategies that help more closely align a coursebook – particularly the language focus part of a unit – with some of the principles of task-based learning. These five practical tips or “hacks” are as follows:

  1. Turn the unit on its head:  ignore the grammar / lexical set, and instead look for the “language production” stage, usually at the end of the particular section. Use this as the starting point (after generating interest and establishing the context): create a central task. Sometimes there is no decent language production stage in the book; in this case, devise one that creates a need for the upcoming language input. For instance, if the lesson is focusing on be going to for holiday plans, students can start the lesson by sharing their plans.  
  2. Give this task a goal or outcome: check if the production in the book is communicative i.e. it encourages the learners to both speak and listen to each other. If it is not, build in a reason for learners to interact e.g. find commonalities or differences in opinion / experience, try to reach agreement, evaluate / react to their partner’s position. For example, if students are discussing holiday plans, they can listen to their partner and decide if this is a holiday they would enjoy; or (even richer from the perspective of negotiating meaning), they can plan and report on a joint holiday.
  3. Cast your net wide: although you may have a particular language point in mind (that which is in the coursebook e.g. be going to), don’t limit yourself to this or you fall into the trap of input-impoverished PPP. It is highly likely that while students are preparing for, doing or reflecting on the task, there will be plenty of emergent opportunities for learning, with the students needing certain language items to help them complete the task (or post-task, when they may be curious about salient language they could have used). This language can be captured and added to the learning via e.g Quizlet, meaning the syllabus now has an emergent dimension.
  4. Mine texts: if you follow the Willis framework outlined above, the post-task language focus can centre around the texts / tapescripts present in the unit of the coursebook. Set simple tasks that encourage learners to mine the texts for relevant language e.g. find 3 positive adjectives used to describe the holiday; find 4 collocations to describe holiday activities. Note that there is no guarantee that these texts will provide rich, authentic samples of language (though I believe most coursebooks are increasingly good at this); an alternative where possible is to devise your own “live listening” to provide learners with comprehensible input.
  5. Repeat the task: have the students repeat the central task, but with variables in place to keep it fresh and interesting e.g. a new goal, new partners, tweaked content (e.g. plan a holiday in a different place / different time of year) or with different demands (e.g. a written rather than spoken itinerary). A number of researchers have reported improvements to task performance in terms of complexity, accuracy and fluency based on task repetition (Ahmadian, 2012).  

The coursebook is going nowhere soon – and nor should it, unless useful alternatives that work effectively for underpaid and overworked teachers emerge. I do think though, given the significance of the coursebook to many ELT courses, it is useful for teachers to reflect on how to use it effectively with their learners, while keeping in mind some key findings of SLA. Teacher educators also have a responsibility to facilitate this process.

Reference List

Ahmadian, M.J., 2012. Task Repetition in ELT. English Language Teaching Journal. 66(3). [online] Available at: <https://academic.oup.com/eltj/article/66/3/380/439513> [Accessed 20th July 2020]

Long, M. 2015. Second Language Acquisition and Task-Based Language Teaching. Chichester: Wiley Blackwell.

Willis, J. 1996. A Framework for Task-Based Learning. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited.

ELT – So Much More Than Just Work…

This guest post from Daniela Petrovska looks at some of the advantages to English language teaching, other than the warm fuzzy glow we get from imparting our knowledge.

Skopje – Barcelona – Moscow – Prague

It looks like an itinerary, doesn’t it? That is the case for me and could be for anyone interested in teaching English.

My major in translation would not let me go for anything else back in my university days, but my inner coach guided me to my first voluntary teaching position. Having no expectations whatsoever, the students took to me right away, which opened my eyes to what I am cut out for. – interaction with people while feeling appreciated and able to give students what they need to reach their goals.

You are probably asking yourselves ‘Can it get any better?’ It sure can. This is when travelling steps in, greets you with a big smile and introduces you to a whole new world of ever-growing opportunities. Not only it does take you to different places in the world, but it also gets you see your worth by pushing your limits just as much as you are ready for. It might sound scary, you might think this is something you wouldn’t be able to cope with, but once you start meeting colleagues in the same boat as you, you immediately have someone to lend you an ear and cater to your needs. No matter how overwhelmed you might feel living alone in a foreign country, you can always turn to your social life.

If you find yourself living as an expat in my hometown Skopje, you will be invited to a local’s house, I guarantee. Your host will ask if you are hungry and trust me, saying ‘no’ will not spare you from getting fed. Not only do we assume, but we are sure, guests are just too shy to admit they are hungry, so you better go for a visit with an empty stomach. You might want to take a bag with you in case the host does not have one for the food they will give you for you to eat the following day(s).

What about Barcelona? Hmm, imagine waking up to the soothing sound of the waves, strolling on the beach after work to recharge your batteries, laughing with passers-by and most likely getting a hug from a good friend you almost certainly will run into. And you thought Barcelona is pricey, right? Not once you realize the best things in life have no price.  

How about spending time with some of the warmest people in the world in freezing cold weather? No matter how much it sounds like an oxymoron, the paradox it reveals adds to the unfolding rewards an English teacher can get. Snowflakes leading you to the next restaurant, having a drink or two with compassionate people while watching the world go by are some of Moscow’s treasures. Seeing men carrying flowers for their women will make you think every day is Mother’s Day in Russia.

Have you ever wanted to work on your time management? Eager to test the water to see how well you can juggle between work and night life? Prague has got your back. Slowly becoming a melting pot, this city selflessly offers its local businesses, impeccably set in captivating architecture, decorated with cobblestones and something for all taste buds.

Having gone through the whole post, I feel like I have reviewed my travel experiences, not work life in foreign countries, but hey let’s be honest. When you work in what you love, it really doesn’t even feel like working. All of this could be just round the corner for you.

5 Truly Innovative Digital Language Learning Tools for 2020

As more and more digital tools are developed, it is always handy to know which are genuinely useful and innovative for our learners. Thank you to Sarah Bromley, who certainly knows her stuff, for this guest post.

By now most teachers are familiar with the idea of using digital resources such as YouTube videos and online quizzes. Nowadays those things, while still extremely useful, are almost ‘old news’.

What are the emerging innovations that will further revolutionise language learning over the next few years? As the founder of a company that develops digital products for language learning, I like to stay on top of the new and cutting edge tools that are becoming available.

Here are some of the most innovative and interesting tools that I’ve come across over the past year. They’re not really classroom activities – more tools that can support students between lessons, to help them practise or supplement what they learn in the classroom.

Ludwig

Ludwig describes itself as a “sentence search engine” that helps you write better English by giving you contextualized examples taken from reliable sources. Your students can use Ludwig to ‘self-check’ their own use of English. 

What I like about Ludwig is that it has formalised what I have tried to do for years using Google searches. When writing Spanish I sometimes Google a construction to see if I can find a good number of instances of it in high quality Spanish websites, to give me some indication of whether it may be correct. 

Ludwig has made it possible for English learners to do this more easily by only searching reliable sources (mainly newspapers, it seems).

I discovered an interesting use for Ludwig recently. A student said “come to grips with” and I told him we in fact say “get to grips with”. He then pointed out that according to online Cambridge Dictionary, “come to grips with” was acceptable. I didn’t think I’d ever heard it so I suspected it was maybe American English. A search on Ludwig confirmed this by showing that “come to grips with” appeared mostly in American publications.

Go Correct 

Full disclosure – Go Correct was created by me, the author of this article. However, it did win a British Council ELTon award for digital innovation in 2019, so it’s not only me that thinks it’s worthy of a mention! The British Council obviously agree. 

Go Correct uses the ‘chat bot’ functionality in Facebook Messenger to send daily conversation questions. The student replies to the question with a short text or voice message and their reply is corrected by a qualified teacher. The student can also click on a mistake for more information and see statistics about where they make the most mistakes.

Go Correct solves a couple of problems for language learners. One – how to get regular practice producing English. There are so many opportunities online to listen to or read English but if a student doesn’t use English in their daily life, it’s easy to let days or weeks pass without ever writing or speaking it. 

Even if students do have opportunities to use English day to day, most of the time they’re generally understandable so the people they’re speaking to won’t correct them. The idea behind Go Correct is that students can discover their mistakes and learn from them.

Wordbit

WordBit is an app that shows you a new English word every time you unlock your phone. This is clever because it takes an action that we do regularly and turns it into a moment to learn a word in English. I believe it’s well known in psychology that to turn something into a habit, it’s best to attach it to something else that’s already a habit. 

I believe the idea is that we spend (waste?) a lot of time looking at our phones so why not make use of that time to learn more words of English?

After using the app I realised that most of the time I’m unlocking my phone to do something useful or important (eg. check my location on a map) and at those times it was annoying to have to swipe away the vocabulary before I could do the task. If they could make it show the word every time I opened an app that I waste time on (eg. Instagram) then that would be really valuable. Also, I’d like to them to fix a couple of technical problems and curate their word list a bit better – I saw some rather obscure or rarely used words.

Voicebook

Voicebook takes listening practice and makes it more useful. Rather than students simply listening and answering questions about the parts they can understand, Voicebook gently pushes students past their current level of understanding.  

Learners listen to an audio recording and view an empty template of all the words in the recording. They then transcribe the parts they understand and the software reveals the words that the learner couldn’t understand correctly, allowing them to re-listen to these parts and focus on understanding them.

The software is still at an early stage and the interface is currently only available in Italian, however there are several English recordings available which you can filter by CEFR level.

Lingbe

Lingbe takes the traditional idea of a language exchange, democratises it and gives it some structure.

In Lingbe, learners make voice calls with people who are learning their language and they earn credits for the calls they make. They can then spend those credits on calls with people who speak the language they’re learning. 

You don’t have to arrange a call in advance. The idea is that you go to the app at any time and there will be someone available to talk to. This takes some of the ‘admin’ out of a language exchange. It also means that you don’t need to exchange directly with someone who speaks the language you’re learning – you can earn credit by talking with anyone and spend it on the language you want. This is helpful if an English learner’s native language is not one that’s widely learnt.

While language exchanges are a great idea, they can be time consuming to arrange and I feel Lingbe solves that problem.

What’s missing from this list?

You may have noticed that I haven’t mentioned any voice recognition applications in this list. This may be surprising because several have appeared over the past couple of years and it is definitely a growing area. However, the voice recognition language learning apps that I’ve tested don’t yet deliver what they promise. 

I found apps such as Elsa and Aivu to be disappointing. There’s still more work needed in this area. I’ve written more about voice recognition for language learning, in this article. I think voice recognition holds the potential to be the next big exciting development in language learning. In fact, it’s something I would love to work on if the opportunity arises.

The Importance of Project Work in Language Learning

This guest post is from Shannon Amaadar (Kings English). I first came across Shannon via some excellent videos she had created to help teachers foster more engagement and motivation with learners in the classroom. I am thrilled she has agreed to contribute this post on how to use project based learning to build enthusiasm and autonomy for learning.

My classes used to start with students sitting in desks with their books out waiting for instruction. They weren’t excited, I wasn’t excited. That is, until I realised that there’s a better way to learn.

Language is something that’s experienced and used. It’s a tool to express your ideas and a means to tell stories and pass knowledge. Why are we relegating it vocabulary lists and grammar rules?

Using the language is so important for acquisition. Giving it practicality and usefulness makes learning easier and more enjoyable. We can do this by making a project the main focus of classroom activity.

Problem solving and discovery are two of the best ways we learn anything. This type of learning encourages our brains to be at alert. It thinks the information is important and hangs on to it, rather than putting it in short term memory then dumping it later on. Project based learning (PBL) is a great way to get students thinking about language in a different way.

Getting started

Setting up a class project can not only help students acquire language, it strengthens other skills such as teamwork and critical thinking. All while accomplishing a task. It makes classes interesting again and students open up to learning.

According to John McCarthy at TeachThought.com students who have a direct interest in the subject they’re studying, engage more and achieve better results. By making the lesson relevant to the students, they’ll work harder towards their goal. PBL is a great way to practice this.

The best way to begin with project work is to come up with a subject that everyone can get behind. Maybe you introduce students to the effects of pollution or solving a community problem such as turning a vacant plot of land into a garden or helping feed the homeless. Whatever your topic, make sure it’s something students can get passionate about.

Once you’ve established a goal, work as a class to come up with solutions. If we take the example of plastic pollution, perhaps students could design a tote bag to replace plastic shopping bags. Materials and designs could all be discussed in English, and the final product could use English designs elements like phrases. Finally the finished tote bags can be used to fundraise to donate to a local cause.

By making the language something that is useful, something that has meaning, students are more likely to retain the vocabulary and grammar rules, than if they simply wrote them down and tried to memorise.

Learning English has now become a fun activity and something that students can look forward to doing each class. This is so important, because students, who are bored, don’t learn.

Assessment

One of the great things about project work is how easy it is to assess understanding. You can see how well each student is doing by looking at factors such as participation, and how well they follow direction.

It’s a great idea to take some time at the end of the class to have a quick discussion. It’s ok to ask students how well they understand what was talked about in the lesson. Encourage students to give you honest answers and provide extra help in understanding where necessary.

When students aren’t afraid to make mistakes and speak up, language acquisition happens quickly. It’s important for students to understand that making mistakes is a part of discovery. When something doesn’t work or is wrong we learn from it better than if it worked or was right. Project work is all about discovery and making mistakes.

Having “check points” throughout the project work can help you gauge student understanding as well. At various stages of the work students can answer a short questionnaire, discuss where they are in the project development, or self assess with a rubric distributed by the teacher.

Making sure that all students are up to speed is essential for the success of the whole class. If students are falling behind, catching it quickly and offering extra help or guidance to those who need it will help everyone be successful.

Structure

Centering lessons on group project work might sound to some like teachers have given up. Allow the students to do as they will, and hope for the best. This is the farthest from the truth.

When using project based Learning, the teacher’s role is to set the parameters and guide students along the way, without interfering and allowing for mistakes.

It’s common for students to be unsure, always asking for guidance and assistance. It’s important that, as the teacher, you stay back a little and encourage discovery. Asking questions like: “what would happen if…?” and “why don’t we try this and see what happens?” Encouraging students to explore will make them feel more comfortable to do just that.

According to Dr. Ping Li in an interview with Francois Grosjean Ph.D. for Psychology today, there are 5 parts of a language that our brains must process. Lexicon, phonology, orthography, syntax, and pragmatics, therefore it would make sense to engage our brains in activities that encourage use in all of these areas.

PBL may be the best way for learners to experience, make use of, and retain language. It doesn’t hurt that it’s fun and fosters friendships and cooperation at the same time.

Try using this method in your classroom and see what results you get out of it. You might find your students are achieving well beyond your expectations.

Fighting Dyslexia

This week’s guest post is from the oh-so-knowledgeable Jood Burkinshaw, a SEN and dyslexia specialist working in schools and the armed forces in the UK. Jood gives us some practical approaches to dealing with dyslexic adult learners.

Years ago I was covering an English lesson for a teacher who’d set the rather open ended task:

‘Write about your saddest day’.

Two young men sat together at the front. One produced a heart rending and articulate account of the day, ten years before, when his dad had told him and his brother that their mum had died. The other, after 40 minutes of sweat and toil, rubbing out, crossing out and general discomfort, produced the following: ‘MY sabbist bay wars wen my gerdil bieb’.

What struck me was the indignity of this chap not being able to express himself in writing: the beginning of my career long mission to understand and mitigate the effects of what we now know as Dyslexia.

The Rose Review produced in 2009 was a major turning point. The resulting report produced a definitive description of Dyslexia alongside a commitment to training a cohort of specialist teachers (of which I was one) who would be qualified to assess for Dyslexia and advise teachers in removing inherent barriers to learning.

The Rose definition is as follows:

  • Dyslexia is a learning difficulty that primarily affects the skills involved in accurate and fluent word reading and spelling.
  • Characteristic features of dyslexia are difficulties in phonological awareness, verbal memory and verbal processing speed.
  • Dyslexia occurs across a range of intellectual abilities.

The BDA (British Dyslexia Association) points out that a dyslexic learner can show a combination of abilities and difficulties that affect the learning process. Some have strengths in areas, such as design, problem solving, creative skills, interactive skills and oral skills.

  • It is best thought of as a continuum, not a distinct category, and there are no clear cut-off points.

Current research indicates that children with a family history of ‘risk’ factors (e.g. a parent is dyslexic) but who are learning to read may still be on the dyslexic continuum. It is possible that difficulties will begin to manifest themselves as the student progresses through school.

  • Co-occurring difficulties may be seen in aspects of language, motor coordination, mental calculation, concentration and personal organisation, but these are not, by themselves, markers of dyslexia.

This gives us a structure for both assessment and teaching.

Fast forward to 2020 ………………

Somehow (long story), after a long career as a secondary school SENDco, then a peripatetic specialist teacher supporting schools from infant to sixth form; I’m now contracted to the RAF where I work with Dyslexic personnel.

We identify by assessment, the spikes and dips in their learning profiles and teach them, alongside their line managers, how to achieve optimum functionality through their learning, their training and their professional development.

Whilst all my teaching is individualised, there are a few core and generic principles that I come back to again and again. These are encompassed in the following, the focus here is on independent study and exam preparation, but the principles can be applied in many teaching and learning situations:

FOR THE TEACHER:

  • Clearly explain assessment/task requirements
  • Allow 25% extra time for exams and assessments where possible, including earlier access to course materials.
  • Consider visual stress and use suitable screen colours (green is best) / whiteboard pen colours (black and blue being the worst)
  • Offer printed material on buff or pale green paper
  • Offer electronic versions of study materials where possible, so that the learner can adjust the format himself.

FOR THE LEARNER:

Proof reading techniques:

On screen:

  • Choose a large font – ariel 14 is suitable
  • Double space the document
  • Highlight in grey or yellow
  • If/ when available, read aloud /Dragon Naturally Speaking to read back
  • Check one line at a time; reading one word at a time to avoid reading what you think is there, as opposed to what is actually there
  • Remove highlight colour for that line when checked
  • Remove bullet points and extra spacings to convert to prose if required.

Effective Reading Techniques:

When reading is laborious, it uses so much brain power that there isn’t always any left for remembering or understanding what’s been read.

Paradoxically, adding in some extra brain processes can make your reading more effective in terms of understanding and remembering:

  • visual mapping of material (noting the page layout and headings/ bold print etc)
  • if material isn’t chunked or broken up, look for distinguishing features such as a dash, capitalisation etc, to visually chunk for yourself
  • take prior note of number of items, where there are bullet points or sections
  • mentally categorise the information in more than one way – cross referencing reinforces what you know and helps to find bits you forgot
  • make a mental note of anything you found amusing/ confusing/ interesting
  • make a mental note of anything you want to ask a question about

Reading Techniques to try when required to read and remember bulky or densely printed material:

  • Note where the full stops are
  • Read a sentence at a time, in your head first, then aloud to confirm if it makes sense
  • Mentally note any tricky words
  • Make use of context clues – what is it likely to say, given the words around it?
  • Mentally summarise, at suitable intervals
  • Allow yourself ‘brain breaks’ when you begin to find the reading more difficult – just a minute’s break or even a few seconds will allow your brain to rest then start processing successfully again.

Avoiding Spelling Errors:

  • Use on-screen ‘sticky notes’ as reminders for commonly mis-spelt words
  • Have a look at the spelling section on www.bbc.co.uk/teach/skillwise/English
  • Use mnemonics
  • Consider the root word:
    • eg Cognitive, from the root word Cognition
  • Use colour coding (eg just highlight the tricky bit)
  • Look for words within words
  • Use visual links and reminders:
‘Electric Ian’ the electrician
  • Break down the word into memorable chunks:
    • Pharmaceutical pharm ace u tical

Memory Techniques and Study Skills:

Bear in mind the need to address all 4 quadrants of the study cycle:

STORE:

  • Make your notes as visually memorable as possible:
  • Quadrants for hand written notes or diagrams
  • Chunking and bullet points
  • Colour coding and highlighting
  • Consciously try to improve your mental storage system:
  • Anchor points in your location eg imagining the information stored on areas in the exam location
  • Store information alongside images or a scenario or story

SECURE:

Consolidate knowledge by:

  • verbal discussion
  • practical application
  • repetition – as on the Forgetting Curve

The intervals on the timescale axis can be used for review processes and practice

REVIEW:

  • Don’t just read through notes:
  • reformat:
  • mindmap layout
  • flowchart of process
  • diagram
  • list
  • chunked bullet points
  • picture transposed onto visual location
  • verbalise:
  • read aloud
  • use Dragon or other text to speech to read aloud
  • have it read to you by a human
  • verbal q and a session
  • chant a ‘mantra’ ….. (repeat a formula or sequence over and over until you can’t forget it) good one for the car!
  • Use a traffic light (RAG) system to denote the areas needing the most or least review
  • Follow up with methodical use of index cards:
    • Replace at back of box if secure (green)
    • In middle if partially secure (amber)
    • Near front if insecure (red)

Retrieve:

  • Successful retrieval relies on the previous stages having been addressed thoroughly
  • Retrieve in ‘brain dump’ style – whatever is triggered by the question or challenge, in no particular order, then put into order once salient points are recalled
  • Retrieve by recalling triggers from storage phase – eg quadrants, colours, number of boxes, number of bullets, page layout
  • Retrieve by searching mental files for appropriate storage – eg did you visually map this information, or use a story, or picture a scenario
  • Retrieve by environment – where were you when you revised it? Who gave you the information? Who gave the best answers to questions?
  • Before writing answers, allow some planning time

Will 2020 be YOUR year???

If you’re anything like me, you will already be sick of reading all the ‘New Year, New You’ type posts that are now flooding the internet. What was so terrible about the old me? What’s suddenly changed overnight? Why should I become a different person? (on second thoughts, don’t answer, I’m not actually that bothered!)

I’m happy being me. I don’t want to change, I just want to tweak…

So this New Year, instead of making the kind of resolutions that I don’t stand a cat in hell’s chance of actually keeping, I will be tweaking. I have a pretty good idea of what I am good at and where I could do with making some improvements (both professionally and personally). So that’s what I’ll be doing, just gradually working on a few areas. No wholesale ‘new me’, just the same old me, developing gradually, as I have always done.

No public declarations of things I’m going to do in 2020, no plans for some huge shift in my personality (sorry), no crazy weight-loss projections, no determination to have a class of teenagers eating out of my hand by September. Just a quiet reflection of my strengths and weaknesses and how best to tweak them, not because it is the 1st of January, but throughout the year.

This time next year I will be looking back at the things I HAVE done, rather than stressing about the resolutions that I didn’t keep.

So happy New Year, I wish you all the best for 2020. Be you – after all, it’s what you are best at.

It’s your turn: Board games in the foreign language classroom

This post, from James York, explains the how he uses board games with his students. If you think that playing games is just all about having fun, then you will be interested in his surprisingly sound methodological validation of this approach

“It’s your turn”

This phrase is multifaceted. It suggests that someone is not paying attention and needs to be reminded to take their turn during a game. But what game? Who is this “you?” Could it be the third-person “you” as in “all of you?” In this article, I think it does. I’d like to frame the expression as me speaking to my students, letting them know that the progression of the class and their learning is now up to them. It is their turn to take control. But it also applies to you, the reader. If you are interested in the practical application of games in your (language) teaching context, this article is a good place to start. I’d like to talk about how I have been engaging students with the use of board games as part of a constructivist approach to education. 

Modern Board Games

First, it is worth clarifying the types of game that I am using in class. Monopoly? No. The Game of Life? No. The modern board game movement, which dispenses with randomness and embraces player interaction and strategy, has seen a huge volume of new games, and game genres appear (for an overview see Nicholson, 2008). Modern board games require complex language use (not just “I passed go, $200 please”), provide links into English culture (how can learners play a card with Nyan Cat on it without learning about the reference, or at least inspired to learn more about this bizarre symbol of English culture?). Amongst those genres are two in particular that provide positive benefits for language learning. These are the hidden-role and cooperative game genres. These two genres were chosen based on how they are played. 

What are hidden role games?

Hidden-role games are conversation driven and require students to exchange information with each other much like a typical “jigsaw task” in Task-Based Language Teaching (TBLT) wherein learners are only given part of the information needed to complete a task and must work together, sharing information for successful completion. 

What are cooperative games?

Cooperative games differ from competitive games in that they do not put players in direct competition with each other, instead, all players work as a team against the game itself, thus promoting conversation regarding how to progress the game state. 

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Forbidden Desert (a cooperative game)

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Burgle Bros. (another cooperative game)

On a macro scale student agency is promoted by putting students in charge of choosing the game they play. 

On a micro scale, students are in charge of learning the game rules, considering the language they need to play, progressing the game state, and analysing their performance post-play.

Methodology overview

The methodology I have created was originally conceptualised as a way to improve my students’ communicative competence through the use of board games. The project has since evolved to focus on all four language skills (listening, speaking, reading, writing). In this post I’ll focus on what the methodology is, how it is carried out, and what students think of learning this way (for more detail, see York & deHaan, 2018; York, 2019).

The methodology is comprised of four main phases, each of which is a full 90-minute lesson. They are Learn, Play, Analyse and Report. The Play and Analyze phases are repeated once (or more if the need exists) so the minimum time it takes to go through one full cycle of the method is six weeks. I will explain each of these phases in more detail below.

The methodology may be considered as a game-based approach to conducting Task-Based Language Teaching (TBLT). The following list highlights some of the major similarities:

  • both focus on meaning-making rather than discrete linguistic elements, 
  • language use is purposeful and goal-oriented
  • games and task-based curricula have incremental progression models (read: levelling systems), 
  • game restarts can be considered task repetition
  • both provide students with a safe space to experiment with the language without fear of failure or losing face.

Next, the model in action!

The methodology: real-life examples

Upon choosing a game, students are in charge of learning the rules of the game. This is the Learn phase, which is heavily multimodal. They can use multiple resources to learn the rules including the rulebook, youtube videos, their peers, and presentations that I have made. Preparing for play in this way is thus similar to the preliminary “pre-task” phase of TBLT. 

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Students getting ready to play Dead of Winter

The second class is the Play phase where learners play and record the audio as they play. There is a specific reason for having students record their games. When playing a game, we often get so enthralled in it that we do not have time to reflect on what is happening in real time. Put another way, the cognitive demands of the game do not allow for real-time language focus. This point can be summarised as: activities require careful reflection (debriefing) for learning to occur. In my case, language analysis is done after playing, but what about other contexts? What post-play activities would you do with students?

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A group of students playing Resistance: Avalon

During the Analyze phase students look for English mistakes and Japanese usage in their previous performance. This is done by first transcribing their recordings and looking for common mistakes or common Japanese phrases that they used. Students are therefore active in filling in their lack of knowledge regarding a topic. Again, in my case: augmenting their interlanguage with grammar exercises found on the internet or their electronic dictionaries (It’s their turn to be in charge, remember!). 

Although students are acting autonomously, the teacher’s role is still crucial. In my situation, I am constantly on the lookout to uncover possible errors, point out grammar that they may want to investigate further, and question their understanding of constructs, but the onus is on them working together as a social group to further their own language development. The final part of the class is for students to present their findings to other groups, as a way to reflect on what they discovered about their language use. This “debriefing of the debriefing” session thus opening group findings up to others.

The fourth class is a replay session, which is again recorded for subsequent transcription and analysis. 

The fifth class is another Analyze session which has the goal of getting students to compare their performance between the two play sessions. 

Finally, students complete a survey as part of the Report phase which is designed to debrief the gameplay experience from a number of perspectives. The survey is completed as a group, which evokes deeper reflection and more detailed answers than completing the survey individually. As with the “Analysis” phase, students also present their group reflections to the rest of the class. This has benefits to me, gaining insights on how to improve the framework and the students compare their experiences with others.

I provide a number of responses from the survey here as an example (all verbatim). They are made after playing the deduction game “Two Rooms and a Boom” (Gerding & McCoy, 2013).

Why did you like this game?

“I make new friends and enjoy speaking English”

“I’m happy when win using English. But one part of classmates don’t have morale, I feel so bad.”

“The game use brain! So, very hard, but very interesting!!”

“I enjoyed because I communication in English and I’m special roles which is President and Romeo.”

I think these responses are a good representation of the general attitude towards playing games in English in my classroom. Gameplay is seen as a positive learning experience in terms of English language development, as well as the social aspect of being able to talk to other classmates, the cognitive challenge, and by providing the opportunity to role-play. The comment regarding morale is rather profound, and I endeavour to inquire further with this group!

Discussion

I have found the decision to abandon generic textbooks a liberating experience for both me and my students, and a positive step towards my research goal of designing a pedagogy for language learning around games. Although I am only providing informal observations here, I can attest to the power of letting students be in charge of their own learning. There is not a mobile phone in sight during class, and if there is, it is being used to either record gameplay audio or to search the internet for resources. Students are engaged and active, working in groups with other students in a social, safe, and fun environment. The response to the class from students has been very positive. In a qualitative study I undertook last year, students seemed to think this was an authentic way to use English in class. Gaming thus provided them with their first experience of using English practically. 

Promoting students to “take their turn” as language learners instead of passive consumers of grammar rules has changed the dynamic of my classroom. Instead of systematically spoon feeding knowledge, by providing them with the support materials to learn what they are ready for, deem appropriate, and use as part of the class is healthy for both students and teachers.

In conclusion, I have shown how I created a framework around games to promote student engagement. Giving students a choice in what they do within the framework promotes learning that is not just a one-way transmission of information, but an exploratory, student-led endeavour. The teacher’s role in the classroom does require further consideration though. Putting students in charge of their learning does not mean that we can be totally removed from what they do. In fact, it calls for more expertise and reflection. In my case, giving rule explanations, promoting noticing of grammar issues as they occur, and leading discussions on game strategy and feedback are just some of the activities that I deal with daily.  

So, why not reroll your own context to put students in charge? Now it’s your turn.

References

Gerding, A. & McCoy, S. (2013) Two Rooms and a Boom. Tuesday Knight Games.

Nicholson, S. (2008). Modern board games: It’s not a Monopoly any more. Library Technology Reports, 44(3), 8-10. 

York, J. (2019) Kotoba Rollers Walkthrough: Board games, TBLT and player progression in an EFL university classroom. Ludic Language Pedagogy 1 (58-115).

York, J., & DeHaan, J. (2018). A constructivist approach to game-based language learning: Student perceptions in a beginner-level EFL context. International Journal of Game-Based Learning, 8(1), 19–40. http://doi.org/10.4018/IJGBL.2018010102

The art of seduction: Why connection should come before everything else

Some more wise words from André Hedlund (Edcrocks) this week. I am becoming more and more fascinated by the science of learning and how this should influence our approach to teaching (and life in general). If you too are interested in learning more – from the horse’s mouth, no less, André will be offering a webinar next month entitled – The Brain & How to Help our Learners Learn (Metacognitive Strategies according to the Science of Learning) (Link here for more info and to sign up)

What really drives people to do anything? On a molecular level, we could say it’s a very important neuromodulator, which has become quite popular not only in the scientific literature but also on TV, blogs and in magazine pieces: our beloved dopamine. The effects it has on the brain are nothing short of extraordinary. Dopamine is released when we have a sense of anticipation of something rewarding, not so much when we experience the reward itself. How does this knowledge change what I must prioritize as a teacher in the classroom? That’s exactly what I intend to discuss in my second blog post for ELT.Training.

Imagine you see an attractive person at a pub in London. You’re single and the person has made eye contact. You look back at the person and realize you’re incredibly attracted to them. What is happening in your brain is quite amazing. An incredible cocktail of neurotransmitters such as serotonin, oxytocin, and dopamine is being released from your neurons into the synapses and being captured by other neurons. The entire process just makes you feel wonderfully well. Those who have engaged in the art of seduction know exactly what I’m talking about. But what does that have to do with your students in the classroom?

Well, let’s start with what makes people engage in the first place. When you sense a dangerous or unwanted situation, something that might make you uncomfortable, your body releases something that causes the bad type of stress. It’s called cortisol. Cortisol plays a role in memory formation, especially remembering things to avoid, but long-term cortisol release has a bunch of effects that actually impact learning negatively. You feel tense and you can’t use your prefrontal cortex, the hub in your brain where sophisticated thinking and reasoning take place. What does that all mean? It basically means that we want more dopamine and just the right amount of cortisol to get people engaged.

The oversimplification above is just to give you some grounds for what I propose next. Very much like the seduction that went on at the pub I mentioned before, we need to seduce our students. Now, please don’t get me wrong here. What I mean is that we need to seduce their brains and make them want to engage with us in class. This is so important that I believe it should be the top priority of every lesson. If you think about it, not seducing your students’ brains will likely generate disinterested students who’ll have a hard time paying attention. Reduced attention leads to reduced memory consolidation. Or even worse. Students who feel intimidated, uncomfortable or something else because they have no emotional connection with the teacher will have a hard time accessing their sophisticated thinking, reasoning and, consequently, learning skills.

What’s something that you can do then? I’d like to list a couple of very simple, yet quite effective, suggestions that you can work on to seduce your students’ brains:

1-    Show them who you are

I always take time, particularly in the very first lesson, to connect with my students. They are curious about what makes their teacher cool and interesting. A very easy way to do that is to start the lesson with a True or False about yourself. Make sure you mention the silly and amazing things you’ve done in your life

2-    Find out who your students are

This takes time but you need to establish this connection with them. I have specific activities for them to tell the class a little bit about themselves and I always take the opportunity to talk to them individually and ask questions about things they like or do. I also encourage them to share their passions and have them prepare presentations on their hobbies.

3-    Show enthusiasm

How many times have I been to a conference or classroom observation where the teacher was extremely knowledgeable and the topic was interesting but they looked like they didn’t want to be there or spoke in such a monotonous way? I lost the count. One of the things that gets us engaged straight away is passion. And passion creates enthusiasm. If you look excited to be there, you’ll be activating their mirror neuron system and that helps students get and keep engaged. Read a little more about it here.

4-    Have a classroom mascot, like my Mr. Trunk

I decided to buy a stuffed elephant to connect with my students and instill a sense of responsibility in them. It may sound silly, but it has worked wonders! Mr. Trunk, the name we gave him, has traveled with my students in Brazil and the world. The best part is that my students took him on vacation or for the weekend and integrated him into their routine. They had to bring back photos and tell us what they had done with Mr. Trunk. I found out so many interesting things I wouldn’t have because of this silly activity. You can read about his story here

5-    Be kind and understanding

Someone once told me that what we can see from someone’s life is just the tip of the iceberg. We don’t know what is going on in their homes, their other classes, with their parents, siblings, friends etc. Assuming that students might be behaving badly because that’s who they are may be incorrect. Being kind conveys an important message: “I’m here if you need to share something and I might be able to help”. With their defense system down, it’s easier to connect.

6-    Be firm and keep your promises

One of the things adults keep doing to kids is break their promises. This creates unstable relationships and mistrust. Students need to learn how to regulate their behavior and that required support. They want a role model, someone they look up to and you can be that person. If you promise a reward, do it. If you promise a punishment, do it too.

7-    Take their needs and interests into consideration

Students are humans and they get tired. Give them a break, show you care about them. They love technology and would love to use their mobiles to show you something. Set moments to do it in class. Some of them might have a particular taste in music, let them show it to the rest of the class.

8-    Keep them curious

Our brain is programmed to be drawn to novelty. It’s so strong that it’s basically inevitable. I realize that we’re busy planning lessons and that we can run out of ideas many times, but the key to long-term engagement is to constantly bring something interesting, new, different to class. Have a puzzle or a mystery that will be revealed at the end of the lesson. Answer questions that are unrelated to the content of the lesson just to kill their curiosity.I could go on and on with more tips, but I think you get the point. But if the point isn’t clear enough, here’s what you need to do from now on: In the wise words of Immordino-Yang and António Damásio, “we feel, therefore we learn”. Live by that motto and remember that your students need that dopamine rush to want to do things, to be engaged. If you become irresistible in the classroom, chances are you’ll seduce their brains and make your lessons much more memorable. That comes before any memorization technique, study strategy or student-centered activity you can think of, trust me. Give it a try and let me know. You can also read something on my blog about that might help here.

Video for the Terrified (or just slightly nervous)

In a departure from the usual written form, this week’s guest post is a video from Eric Oscar Wesch from Etacude. If you’ve ever wondered about creating your own videos, but were too terrified or overwhelmed by the tech to start, this post will calm your fears, explain why we should all be doing it and get you started with tech that you probably already own. You’ll be making videos in no time!

Collaborate to Innovate

OK, before we start, I’ll admit I do have a vested interest. I firmly believe that we all know something and should pass it on to help us all grow as teachers. That said, I’m not the only one…

You probably don’t know me, I’m not Scott Thornbury or Jeremy Harmer (not least because I’m a girl) but neither am I Penny Ur or Laura Patsko some other big ‘name’ in the ELT world. I’m just a teacher, like you. The thing is, I know things that you don’t know and I’ve done things that you’ve yet to try, while you know stuff that I don’t and you’ve done things I’ve not even considered or had the guts to try – yet (go on, persuade me…). But then, you probably kind of had a sneaking feeling about that before you started to read, otherwise why would you be reading a post from someone you don’t yet know?

I’ve flipped classes, I’ve built a Moodle site from scratch, I’ve created courses and started a teaching business. I’ve navigated technology that I never imagined I’d be able to and I’ve met the most wonderful teachers. You may have done some of the same things, but you may also be able to hold the attention of a room full of teenagers, you may know how to use an interactive whiteboard, you may use dogme without batting an eyelid, you may be a marketing genius, you may be able to stand in front of a roomful of expectant people at a conference and not wish the ground would open up and swallow you – please, show me how to do these things.

Please, show all of us.

Many of us collaborate on a small scale, without even realising it. When you go into the staff room after a particularly stressful lesson and rant at your colleagues and someone offers a useful suggestion – that’s collaboration. You have learned another technique and your colleague has learned what not to do with that particular group of learners. Perhaps you have spent hours trying to find the perfect video for a lesson (we’ve all done it – that internet rabbit hole is a scary place), you are so pleased with yourself, you pat yourself on the back and show a colleague. That’s collaboration. Maybe you are stuck for an activity and post a request in a Facebook group. That’s collaboration too.

Broadwell (1969) suggests that development can be construed as a move from ‘unconscious incompetence’ to ‘conscious competence’. The idea being that we may be unaware that we are doing something badly until we realise it has been made better.  It is in this movement where collaboration is most productive – someone else’s advice or guidance is so much more supportive than a ‘superior’ telling you how to ‘improve’.

If we can move past the ‘phatic communion’ (Lansley) of just moaning together and agreeing with each other, then collaboration can be a truly rewarding and, dare I say it, fun approach to learning and developing our skills. There is really nothing more thrilling than have peers thank you for your insight into something and then act on it. It is a boost to your confidence, validates your ability and experience and is great for consolidating the knowledge that you may not even realised that you had in the first place. When this tacit knowledge (Sternberg & Horvath, 1999) is realised or extracted then collaboration is the most effective approach to professional development. That penny-dropping ‘duh!’ moment, when we suddenly realise that we had the answer all along, cannot be replicated in a lecture theatre or classroom while we ‘do’ obligatory staff development – this is the stuff that we come to naturally, because we need the answer or information.

My first conscious and deliberate act of collaboration was some years ago. I’d been teaching in the UK for a year or so post-CELTA. I was getting on OK, still doing the post-CELTA thing of spending every waking moment planning lessons for a part-time job, but getting on OK and feeling like a ‘proper’ teacher.

For the B2 groups, there were just two teachers, myself and another (we’ll call her Caroline – because that’s her name). We soon realised that our learners were jumping from one class to the other and losing any course continuity. So, we decided to collaborate on creating a shared scheme of work.

We spent that year planning lessons and syllabi together and sharing our work, so that we both taught the same lesson (or variations of) each week. The benefits were myriad. Our learners could attend whichever lesson was convenient each week and not miss anything, lesson planning time nearly halved (tea and chatting did slow us down a bit) and we each learnt about new activities, approaches and techniques that we hadn’t tried before. I also learned more about teaching in that year than I had working by myself and doing the CELTA; and I made a wonderful friend. I also used the school LMS to give learners access to materials after class, something which was new to Caroline.

We all (mostly) advocate learners working out stuff for themselves as the best method of acquiring the language, the same goes for us, the teachers. In this connected world, there are so many ways of collaborating and sharing our knowledge and experience to help both ourselves and others. Work with a friend, join a SIG, co-teach, make use of any of the 1000’s of groups on social media, attend a workshop (maybe even an ELT.Training interactive online workshop) or even just take time for a cup of tea and a chat. When we get together to find the answers to questions we may not even realise we have, we can move mountains.

So, show me what you know, show all of us.

References

Broadwell, Martin M. (20 February 1969). “Teaching for learning (XVI)“. wordsfitlyspoken.org. The Gospel Guardian.

Lansley, C (1994) Collaborative Development: an Alternative to Phatic Discourse and the art of Co-operative Development. ELT Journal, 48 (1): 50-6

Sternberg & Horvath (1998) Tacit Knowledge in Professional Practice: Researcher and Practitioner, Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc