With the Lesson Planning Masterclass starting soon, I thought we should keep with the planning theme and a few useful tips on how to plan lessons that we can all enjoy.
1. Know your learners
Might seem obvious – but who/what
are you teaching? The syllabus? The coursebook? Or the learners? Get to know
the learners and what makes them tick. Use a variety of techniques to find out
about them, use ‘find someone who’ activities, questionnaires, discussions and
build this information gathering into the lessons. Keep a record of useful info
on each learner. If you REALLY know your learners you will be able to tailor
lessons to their needs and interests, making for much more engaging and
Don’t just teach page 21 of the book because it is Wednesday.
2. Start at the end
When planning, always have the final task/objective in mind and lead the learners to it. Make sure the language they need to complete the task is clearly taught in the lesson. Practice the task during the planning so that you know what language they will need. Use what you know about the learners to ensure that you teach them the language they need in contexts they are likely to meet outside the classroom too. ‘Scaffolding’ is a bit of a buzzword, but it ensures that the learners will be able to do what you want them to by the end of your carefully crafted lesson.
3. Know What Success Looks Like
It is important that you know how you are going to assess your learners. Plan the assessment rubric in advance. Keep it simple and specific (and related to the lesson objective). If you are focusing on the present perfect tense, ensure you have a task that uses the grammar and write one or two ‘can do’ statements so you can assess learners’ ability to use the language. (e.g. Can say whether they have visited a specific country / can ask others if they have visited a country) – are you going to observe, test or have learners present their knowledge? Think about different ways of assessing learners like observations, exit slips and informal tests.
4. Leave Space For Adaptation
Make sure you have an extra activity (or two) up your sleeve in case you find you have a few spare minutes and, likewise, know which activities can be left out or cut short if things take longer than expected. Have a back-up plan in case the computer fails or the photocopier breaks down and build an element of differentiation into activities – because no two learners are the same. Maybe some learners only complete 3/5 of a task or others have a ‘fast finishers’ question at the end. Just because something is written in the plan – it doesn’t mean you can’t improvise if an interesting question is asked or the learners have an unexpected problem or link to the topic.
Build in feedback stages, so that you can deal with unsuccessful learner-generated language. Reactive teaching helps learners with the language they want and need to use, but you may not have anticipated. Put the language on the board and have learners correct (and explain) in pairs or individually.
5. Check Your Pace
Try to mix it up a bit, if the whole lesson is spent sitting at desks writing, it may be hard to get the learners excited about the lesson. Try adding some movement such as running dictations or putting tasks on the walls around the room. Change the interactions, move learners around so they talk in different groups, use a combination of pair work and group work. If things look a bit slow build in a brain break activity to revitalise the class. If learners are a bit excitable, try a calming activity like pelmanism or individual work.
This week’s guest poster is Richard Osborne: podcaster, teacher, teacher trainer and all-round tech-savvy guru. If you struggle with integrating new technology into your teaching, he has some excellent advice, in his own inimitable style…
The global digital transformation has been on my
mind these past few days. Yesterday came some of the most perfect examples.
On my way home to my sleepy little country town
of Montignac from the big smoke of Perigueux, I thought to myself, “Hey,
remember that new car radio you were thinking of buying for your tired old
frumpy Opel Meriva, when you immediately opened your phone to look on Amazon
like some sort of Mark-Zuckerberg-conditioned drone? Why don’t you take
advantage of your being in the big city and go to one of those things…
whatya-ma-call-it… a brick-and-mortar store, yes, that’s right.” So I quickly
tapped “Norauto” (yes I actually remembered the name of a brick-and-mortar
store, showing my age there) into my Waze navigation app on my phone.
Yes, ok, my anti-technology example hinged upon a bloody piece of technology. Otherwise what the hell else would I have done? Should I have wound down my window and asked some poor downtrodden serf walking the streets where the nearest Norauto was? Hoping she’d lift her head from her Instagram long enough to comprehend what I’d said. Waiting patiently for her to unfurl her grand map of Perigueux from her pocket (don’t be ridiculous, girls don’t have pockets) in the rain and start reading me out turns and road numbers? Yes, it sounds ridiculous, but even more ridiculous still is what would have actually happened in this scenario. She’d have simply typed “Norauto” into her own bloody Waze app, probably press some magical button that’d beam that information into my own phone, thus negating the whole process of asking in the first place.
Anyway, back to reality please. Where was I? Oh yes.
Being guided by my wonderful Waze app, which is updated live with traffic
information from other people who are also using the Waze app (and vice versa.
Yes, take my personal information, take it all!), it spontaneously changes my
route to avoid traffic jams, speeding towards my mysterious destination.
I was awash with excitement. Would they have the
product I sought? Who knows. That’s the fun of it, isn’t it? Driving twenty
minutes, spending petrol at €100 a litre, just to arrive at one of these once
illustrious institutions of commercial frivolity, and finding they don’t
‘stock’ the product you seek. That state of not knowing is what makes it worth
being human, ticking my brain’s anticipation sacks only to experience the full
spectrum of crushing disappointment at the phrase, “Ah… sorry Sir, I’ll have to
order that part in for you…”
Where was this slightly pungent employee going
to order the part from, dear readers? You’ve guessed it. From the bleeding
internet of course! Yes, that’s right, brick-and-mortar stores today are
basically the physical click-and-collect points of the digital world. I give
up. Amazon, here I come! [insert picture of Jeff Bezos laughing smoking a cigar
in a tall leather chair please Tamara]
That’s not all. During this ill-advised foray
into the good-old-days, I was listening to my favorite French radio station –
France Info. Coincidence of all coincidences, they were talking to a
representative of the police of Nice about a test the municipality conducted
last year of a new facial recognition system using the city’s CCTV cameras.
The police rep couldn’t have said it better, and
I paraphrase, “At first we thought this would never work, that you can’t
replace a real human police officer when it comes to identifying a suspect in
CCTV footage. After the test we’ve absolutely changed our minds. Furthermore,
we realised that there are roles where technology can greatly alleviate the
work of police officers, and areas where a human officer is absolutely
For me these are two examples show what’s
happening in our world in terms of fear of technology turning to wondering how
we ever did without it. I may be a self-confessed geek who runs head-first
towards anything new, throwing caution and common sense to the wind, but
there’s not much more to my technological prowess than that. I’ve never taken a
training course in technology, I didn’t study computer programming in
university. Back in my day (preach, old man) when I was in secondary school,
the furthest we got was ‘word processing class’, where we sat and typed out
printed texts into Microsoft Word for about 2 hours a week. It was hell, but by
God did it teach me to type as fast as a German milkmaid on acid. Yes, I’ve
lost you there, let’s move on and pretend that never happened.
The point that I’m very unclearly trying to make
it this: Technology should be evaluated for its usefulness throughout the
spectrum of human activities, but we must put measures in place to help ease
people through the transition without fear leading to being left behind.
Language teaching is no exception.
On that same radio show yesterday, a teenager talked about how one of the major changes in her school was that this year students at her school have no paper textbooks anymore. Not one. The state has paid for every single secondary student to have a tablet computer. All school materials are now online. If you’re the reactionary English teacher in one of those schools, clutching your copy of New English File in the supply closet, moistening its decade old pages with your tears, you must be #$%@ing bricking it.
This is why I’m writing this article. I’m
looking at you, my nervous language teaching colleague, and I hear you. “I’m
rubbish at technology, I’ll never be able to keep up with all these gadgets and
doodads, what am I going to do?!” I can tell you, right here and now, you’re
wrong. You can absolutely and easily catch up and use any technology you want.
You just have to be like me – go running towards the technology head first, to
hell with the consequences, to hell with people who think you’re ridiculous and
mock you with such zingers as “How can she not even know how to type with all
her fingers??” The hidden truth of the internet is: You’re not alone.
My job involves teaching freelance language
teachers of all ages in France and abroad about how to use new technology in
their language teaching. I can tell you from vast experience that a majority of
language teachers, regardless of their age, don’t know how to use the same
technologies you currently fear are coming to take your job. It actually
surprised me how much this ratio of 5:1 – teachers who are comfortable with
technology to teachers who are not – doesn’t change much based on age. I’ve met
60-year-olds who are miles more tech-savvy that some of my 20 -year-old teacher
In reality, there’s only one thing that
separates them: Being able to get over the irrational fear of new things and
simply go for it, try the technology out, push buttons and break things, make a
mess, and slowly learn how the thing ticks.
Take Google Docs for example. I had a teacher
trainee yesterday talking about Microsoft Word documents she’d created that,
now she’s teaching at a distance, she’d like to share with her learners. Before
she used to send them by email, asking the learners to write their answers in
the document and send a copy back, to be corrected and once again sent to the
learner. What she ends up with are three versions of the same document in an
email chain. This is not in itself a complicated thing to manage, but once she
starts doing it with 5, 10, 20 students at a time, it will become a logistical
nightmare. She could, in theory, organise her email inbox into folders and be
rigorous in storing students’ work in the correct place, but this would almost
require as much effort as it would learning how to use Google Docs in the place
of Microsoft Word.
The advantage of Google Docs is you can import
your existing Word documents directly into your Google Drive and convert them without
losing much formatting. Afterwards, you’ll have an original document that can
be edited live by one or more of your learners. How they edit it is up to you.
They can be given permission to simply ‘comment’ the document, that is to say,
they can modify and add text, but the original will not be changed. The teacher
can look at the modifications, give corrections in the form of comment replies,
then erase them to return to the original unmodified text, ready for the next
student to complete. They can equally be allowed to modify the original
document as if they were they author. Even then, each modification is stored in
a huge list of historical changes, each one able to be consulted and restored
This means the teacher will now only have two
version of the same document: One master version, stored safely in a private
folder, and one duplicate version added to a student’s shared Google Drive
folder for editing. Even if you think this is only a minor improvement on the
original emailing Microsoft Word documents method, I can tell you that this
basic transition into the sort of ‘neo-digital’ realm of using free, web-based
software, will open up a world of possibilities for you.
For example, you can experiment with the Google Docs extension Kaizena (plugin available from the ‘Chrome Store’ in Google’s Chrome web browser). This plugin allows you and your learners to not only edit documents together, but add self-recorded spontaneous audio comments to parts of the text. Imagine the possibilities for replying to production questions that up to now could only be completed using writing skills? Suddenly, “Use the present perfect to describe a recent holiday you had,” can be answered as a speaking activity – for homework. This was an absolutely mind-blowing experience for me the first time I tried it, and now I encourage my learners to record themselves as frequently as possible in preference to writing their answers to my own homework activities.
Why not move on to experiment with Google
Drawings, Google Sheets or Google Slides? These are an online whiteboard
(admittedly very basic), an online Microsoft Excel and an online Microsoft
Powerpoint respectively. Every application is free, and you can add links
between individual documents through the ‘add link’ function which searches
through your existing file from any of the other platforms. Why not branch out
from Google, and experiment with Quizlet, Memrise, and Padlet? These are a
flash-card quiz application, a spaced-interval vocabulary memorisation
application, and a social link sharing board respectively.
I could go on, but my objective here is not to
overload your brain with the possibilities of technology. I know there’s a
point where I’ll scare you off. If you can even experiment with just Google
Drive and Google Docs, I’ll be happy. These could be your first personal
challenges of confidently charging towards new technologies, spending a good
hour testing each of them, pushing all the buttons trying to make it make you a
cup of coffee, to know in the end what it can and can’t do, where the bugs are,
where it works well and where it doesn’t. In doing so, you’ll remove all
embarrassment from future use of such technology with your students. Through
one hour of simply imitating the autodidact baby smashing, chewing and throwing
a new toy around to learn entirely through doing, I guarantee you’ll know more
than 90% of the people you intend to use it with.
This week’s guest post is from Tim Goodier, member of the core authoring group for the CEFR Companion Volume (among other things). Did you know that the descriptors had been updated? I didn’t!Here, he offers some useful insights into the changes and how to incorporate the ‘can do’ statements into your teaching.
Most people working in ELT will be familiar with the CEFR
(in full: the Common European Framework of Reference for languages) though not
necessarily in detail. You might be forgiven for thinking that it’s just a set
of level labels (A1, A2, B1, B2, C1, C2) that are roughly equivalent to
‘beginner/elementary’, ‘pre-intermediate’, ‘intermediate’,
‘upper-intermediate’, ‘advanced’ and ‘proficiency’. However, the CEFR levels are
based on a scheme for profiling language skills, using ‘can do’
statements developed with the feedback of thousands of teaching professionals.
It was first published in a book 2001 and then updated in an online Companion
Volume in 2018 for greater relevance for the 21st century. This
recent update has created a lot of discussion, especially concerning the expanded
concept of ‘mediation’ (see the note on communication modes below).
Here are 3 key points about the CEFR, and its recent update, that have some interesting
implications for English language teaching (and there are popular
misunderstandings that we can de-mystify here too):
The CEFR is for any language – this means it is designed to describe in detail what learners can do in any given language at each level. The same can do statements apply across different languages because they focus on the outcomes of communication, not the mechanics of specific languages. The idea is to support plurilingual education, where learners build a profile of 2 or 3 (or more) languages in a portfolio and ‘language passport’, to open opportunities in an increasingly globalised / ‘glocalised’ world.
Implications for language teachers: The CEFR therefore breaks down language ability into things we do communicatively (for example, justify a viewpoint rather than use modal verbs),and this ‘action-oriented approach’ dovetails well with communicative, task-based and project-based learning. In essence, the CEFR gives us as a reliable core menu of communicative activities and strategies to work on at each level, which are applicable to different contexts and topics. Individual can do statements can be adapted as learning aims to help us focus more on coaching learners for real world communication, rather than just teaching language forms with staged controlled interactions. Check whether your course material already provides a simplified list of CEFR linked can do statements for learners, as they can be a good focal point for incorporating more personalised and action-oriented lesson tasks.
Popular misunderstanding: people often think that the CEFR does not support a focus on grammar and vocabulary practice, but this is not the case. There are in fact CEFR mapping projects for English grammar, functions and vocabulary such as the British Council Eaquals Core Inventory, or English Profile. Nevertheless, grammar and vocabulary topics need not dominate course aims at the expense of meaningful skills development. The CEFR encourages us to organise learning around acts of communication relevant to the learners, and in tandem work on the language forms that they need to succeed in them. Published teaching materials are gradually changing their approach to reflect this (and I mean gradually!), but you can also use can do statements to negotiate with learners how to customise their course and lessons with extra activities.
Four modes not four skills: The CEFR views listening and reading as ‘reception’, which is a mode of communication. But it also describes modes of production (formulating the message), interaction (engaging in dialogue)and mediation (collaborating and helping others to understand things better), which can apply to either speaking or writing, or a mixture of these, reflecting how communication really happens. The recent update to the CEFR adds scales of can do statements for mediation for the first time. This goes well beyond the dictionary definition and includes a wide range of activities for achieving better understanding between people; for example, skills for collaborative team work or explaining / summarising things you have read or listened to – hence the spotlight on integrated skills.
Implications for language teachers: Mediation can do statements now provide a detailed level-specific roadmap for areas such as presentation skills, collaborative problem-solving tasks and summarising information from different sources. This is highly relevant to the growing focus on content and language integrated learning (CLIL) in ELT. It’s something you could explore yourself by taking one mediation can do statement and thinking how to bring it to life in an authentic communicative task.
For example, consider the B1 descriptor:
‘Can summarise (in Language B) a short narrative or article, a talk, discussion, interview or documentary (in Language A) and answer further questions about details.’
Firstly, note that ‘language A’ and ‘language B’ can be different uses of English, and are not necessarily two different languages. This could for example be developed in a task to present the main points of an article or documentary on a subject chosen by the learner, researched on an English-language website, or indeed in L1. The main point here is a focus on relaying information and ideas in a personalised way for your intended audience, not just verbatim reporting or translation, and this can create rich opportunities for exploring language use, especially at B and C levels.
Popular misunderstanding: ‘mediation is a new theory that we have no means to teach’. Mediation can do statements are in fact very practical, and they relate to tasks that have a focus on meaning, be it helping people understand something, helping people communicate better, taking other viewpoints into account, and/or talking through ideas to find solutions. Mediation can happen at low levels too e.g. in a simple form of relaying information from a schedule or brochure. Mediation is not new – it’s a feature of all good communicative classrooms, and the person who regularly mediates the most is you the teacher!
‘Online interaction’ – a genuinely new area: The 2018 update to the CEFR also adds scales for online interaction, which can be open-ended or goal-oriented. Online interaction activities assume an integration of skills / modes, and can involve phases of live (synchronous) and delayed (asynchronous) interaction by text or speech, with varying numbers of participants, embedded threads and use of links to media to illustrate points etc. This together means something quite unique to the 21st century that is described separately in the updated CEFR levels.
Implications for language teachers: As
with mediation we now have a more detailed roadmap for what to work on at each
level for online interaction. This can be translated into concrete targets for
21st century communication skills, and personalised with creative
activities learners can relate to. For example, ‘Can engage in online
transactions that require an extended exchange of information’ could be developed
in a house swap scenario, using, email, a free messenger app or simulating with
exchanged written messages. The same principle can apply of experimenting with one
descriptor to start with, and thinking how it suggests personalised tasks and
On this page you can find the 2018 update titled the CEFR
Companion Volume with New Descriptors (or CEFR CV) because it brings
together all the scales of can do statements, original and new, in one
easily navigable collection. If you’re interested to learn more, a good place
to start is the introductory chapter of the CEFR CV called ‘Key aspects of the
CEFR for teaching and learning’, which is rather more accessible than the
original book, and is only 20 or so pages long!
This guest post is from Philip Pound, founder of EFL Magazine. Some salient advice for freelancers (both teaching and writing) trying to ‘sell’ their work or skills.
A sales trainer once told me, “no matter what
you do in life you’re always selling” I may have forgotten most of the rest of
that seminar, but that has stuck with me.
If you feel you need a little primer on how to sell, have a read of this article and be sure to do some more research.
Take no for an answer
Many newbies starting out in their sales careers
are terrified of rejection. They’re afraid of hearing no. We think when we hear
“no” it’s a rejection of us as a person. This is not the case.
Hearing “no” is often our best friend.
Let me explain…
In my 10+ years in sales, if I have learned anything for my efforts, it was your clients say yes when they oftentimes mean no. You get your hopes up, you follow up, and eventually it’s a no.
Why did this happen? “They seemed so positive”,
you say. And yes, many times business decisions are made by committee. And yes,
it takes only one person to blackball your fantastic proposal.
More often though, It’s your prospect who can’t
bear to say “no” You see, if being rejected feels like a hammer blow, having to
reject is far worse.
So what happens?
When they mean no they say yes.
In his book, Never Split the Difference, former FBI negotiator Chris Voss Outlines 3 types of yes: Counterfeit, Confirmation, and Commitment.
A “Counterfeit Yes” is when your prospect wants
to say no but says yes in order to back of the deal and the feeling of being
A “Confirmation Yes” is when your prospect
interchanges yes with “I see” or “ok” for example
A “Commitment Yes” is what you want. It’s your
prospect agreeing to take your product or service.
Voss recommends looking for the words “that’s
right” as a more accurate gauge of your client’s intention to work with you.
On top of this, Voss advises to actively look
for and invite “no” Check out more here
In the end, if getting a no means not having to waste your time following up with prospects. That in itself is a great result.
2. Start with no
Do you hate salespeople?
In surveys over the years, salespeople come out bottom of the least-liked jobs. Why is this? You may have your opinion, but for me one big factor comes out on top.
It’s like this, you see a salesperson sidle up to you with that big smile and over-familiar patter. Sub-consciously you feel we’re going to “be sold”and there’s going to be some manipulation and guilt-tripping involved . Of course, not all salespeople are like this. But they do exist. And we hate how they make us feel.
Why do we feel like this and what can we do as
salespeople to not scare away or prospects?
In his book, Start with No, Jim Camp talks about the power of no in negotiations and sales.
One of his tips is to be forthright about your intentions from the very outset. To be clear that you want to sell and what your price is. In this way, the prospect will not have the creepy feeling that there’s an agenda afoot. The air is clear and you can move on. He also talks about the power of no and how seeking and hearing it can help uncover your prospect’s pain points and help you to shape your solution to fit.
3. Always be prepared to say no
When you work in sales there’ll always be a few
clients that you’ll stay in touch with even after moving on to another company.
One such gentleman once handed me this nugget of advice. I’ve never forgotten
it and it’s served me well.
“Always be prepared to walk away”
The story goes like this: He’d secured the
exclusive distribution rights for a famous beverage in Ireland. Then with the
contract in hand he went with a lot of optimism to one of that country’s
largest retailers. This was a big contract, and undoubtedly one he wanted in
But he walked away.
Well, the buyer was unnecessarily rude,
demeaning, and aggressive.
His response was “ Thank you, but I don’t need
In your business, there’s never a contract
that’s too big to lose your self respect and honour over. Think of the long
run, the client treats you with contempt or arrogance how is the relationship
going to develop? Not well, is it. Being too eager to close a deal also leaves you
open to looking desperate. People can smell desperation from a mile away. It’s
a sales repellant.
If you’re always ready to say no, you’ll have
the upper hand.
This week’s guest post by the lovely Gabriella Kovács briefly discusses the basics of language coaching and gives you some ideas about how it works… and a very practical takeaway activity to use in your next lesson.
Something to identify is whether you are a coach coaching learners, or a language professional (teacher, trainer) using coaching elements, techniques and tools to add dimension to your classes. When you coach, you coach, when you teach, you may make use of specific coaching elements, but that is not coaching: that is teaching with a coaching approach. In my experience of the past few years, the latter is basically what most language professionals need, this is what learning about LC can provide.
Language coaching is a process focusing on
learner needs, interests, motivation and goals.
By identifying – with the learner – what and why they wish to achieve
concerning their language learning and language usage goals, the missing pieces
of the puzzle fall into place nicely. By
asking questions, guiding with empathy and positivity there will be space for
the learner to come to terms with who they really are as language learners,
language users and will increase their commitment to taking steps to reach
The definition goes: A conversation-based process with a purpose to map and create optimal language acquisition or language usage-related goals. The framework is based on strategies utilising intrinsic motivation and developing learning awareness, where both parties are equal partners. It is important that clients (learners) claim ownership of their own development. (Source: Gabriella Kovács ACC)
Learners may feel stuck or demotivated, keep
postponing exams, cannot significantly make progress, do not seem to find time
to study the language, believe they are not good at learning languages etc.
For some, working on these issues might take
one session, for others 3-6, it really is not about time. I have had clients collaborating
with me for one session and leave happily, while others I support for months
and work in true partnership with them, covering themes related to their
workplace communication issues, exam preparation etc.
Key questions to ask when beginning a coaching
process might be:
way(s) is your goal supporting other aspects of your life?
have an ideal type of teaching or lesson in mind you would feel comfortable
had 15 minutes a day to learn, what would you do in that time?
I work with adults in the corporate world and
blend coaching with communication training. Many times I go in with 3-4
coaching tools and a handout and we discuss what is going on for the learner. I
provide the attention all learners should be receiving – and they strive.
Let me present an activity I often use with
learners when identifying motivation, learning preferences, strategy issues for
Print and cut about 6-10 quotes
and place them on the table in front of the learner/s. (If you have a class,
then get them into pairs or groups of maximum 3-4.)
Go through the quotes and make
sure learners understand the meanings of the words and phrases. Make this as
short as possible. (Don’t interpret the meaning of the quotes themselves to
Ask learners to choose 2 quotes
that resonate with how they are feeling in connection to their learning
challenges right now, why that quote is important for them at present. Let them explain to you or their
Finally get them to highlight and
share some interesting ideas. Let them
reflect on the activity: Why was this activity valuable for you?
You can even collect their
reflections and summaries on post-its and put them on the wall.
This is a precious activity as it needs very
little preparation, will support learning awareness and deepen understanding of
aspects of learning/teaching learners may not have thought of before. It may
take 10 minutes, it may take 30 minutes… Be prepared for a fruitful
These are my favourite quotes, but there are many, many more out there!
Insanity is doing the same thing over and over again and expecting different results. – From the book Narcotics Anonymous
If you limit your actions in life to things that nobody can possibly find fault with, you will not do much. Lewis Carroll
Nothing is impossible… the word itself says I’m possible! Audrey Hepburn
The journey is the reward. – Chinese proverb
People often say that motivation doesn’t last. Well, neither does bathing, that’s why we recommend it daily. – Zig Ziglar
When it is obvious that the goals cannot be reached, don’t adjust the goals, adjust the action steps. – Confucius
Problems are only opportunities in work clothes. Henry Kaiser
Success depends upon previous preparation, and without such preparation there is sure to be failure. – Confucius
I never teach my pupils. I only attempt to provide the conditions in which they can learn. – Einstein
Tell me and I forget, teach me and I may remember, involve me and I learn.- Xun Kuang
A teacher is one who makes himself progressively unnecessary. – Thomas Carruthers
That is what learning is. You suddenly understand something you’ve understood all your life, but in a new way. – Doris Lessing
Hope you enjoyed reading this and found it useful.
Australian-born Gabriella Kovács ACC, an internationally certified language coach, business communication trainer (B.Ed., M.A.), mentor and teacher trainer. She is behind the idea of founding an organisation to support all professionals interested in language coaching, which has manifested in ILCA (International Language Coaching Association).
Her mission is to add dimension and depth to ongoing language learning practices and create a more holistic, person-centred approach for language professionals. She provides webinars, f2f and online trainings, publishes articles and works with her clients.
There is a
learning window, that is, a limit to how long students can maintain the focus
required for language learning to occur. Games, aka activities, act as a way to
expand that window of time in which language learning can occur. That being said,
it may be true that teachers with little or no experience may use games in the
classroom as a crutch for their inability to maintain that initial learning
window as long as is necessary or desirable. However, what is entirely untrue,
is that experienced and veteran teachers do not use games in the classroom. To
the contrary, the only difference lies in maximizing the efficiency in how and
to what degree they will employ those very same games and their understanding
of why games are important. As they are especially useful in foreign language
learning, let’s examine why games are important in the classroom within the
context of ESL students and ESL teachers. As an ESL teacher you’ll know that
there are aspects that are particularly important for you when you are at work
in the classroom: effective or emotional aspects, creating an effective
learning environment, cognitive aspects, and adaptability.
1. Affective Or Emotional Aspects
We’ve all dealt
with this central issue. The student’s moods dictate their willingness to learn
as well as how engaged they are in the learning process. ESL games in the
classroom will help you trek through the emotional swamp of a classroom of
youngsters by providing motivation, creating fun in the classroom, promoting
spontaneous communication between the ESL students, and creating an environment
in which the ESL students can speak and think in a free and creative manner.
Your ESL students
require structure in the classroom, but at the same time, they can feel desperate
to break away from the routine of language learning. Simply put, their
motivation may not be aligned with yours, but rather in escaping it. That’s
where ESL games in the classrooms come in. As an ESL teacher, one of your main
roles is to align your student’s motivations with your task of language
acquisition. ESL games motivate students to participate in the language
learning task which you are trying to accomplish. Which brings me to my next
point, one of the main reasons ESL games are so motivating in the classroom,
besides being a break from their dreaded language learning routine, are the
elements of fun they create.
Simply put, when students are having fun,
you typically find that they are the most amenable to language learning. Let’s
be frank – language learning is an exceedingly difficult task which can
frustrate you as well as the students. The constant effort required to
understand, produce and manipulate the target language can be completely
overwhelming and hard to maintain. When you employ ESL games in the classroom
which contain elements of fun it allows your students to feel that they are
‘taking a break’ from the difficult task of language learning to have some fun.
As they are having fun, they are practicing their language skills and
furthering your goal of language acquisition.
& Creating An Effective Learning Environment
ESL games in the classroom also create an
environment which fosters opportunities for the free-willing style of communication
which ESL students require to communicate their emotions and connect
emotionally to their peers. This is also why student-focused learning is so
important. ESL students may feel limited in how and when they can communicate
with you – their teacher. However, when you employ ESL games in the classroom
ESL students are better able to practice what they have learned with their
peers around them who are operating within the same framework as them. The
learning environment which is created when students are autonomously and
spontaneously producing and communicating the target language beyond your
direction is one of the most recognizable instances of effective language
learning. If you’ve ever witnessed it occur, you know it’s a sight to behold!
Sit back, watch the language learning proliferate, give guidance, and take
notice of what specific issues might be popping up for each of your students
Most ESL teachers know that ESL games in
the classroom are an effective tool for reviewing the target language being
learned, but that’s just the tip of the iceberg. Let’s dive a little deeper.
Esl games in the classroom not only
review what you’ve been teaching your ESL students but also reinforce it (which
can be all the difference when it comes to long-term retention). ESL games
provide a task-oriented vehicle through which your students can use the
language you have taught them to achieve their own communicative goals. In
short, they end up reinforcing what you have taught them by internalizing it.
You’ll be delighted to see your students not only regurgitating what you have
taught them in a literal sense but also negotiating their way into communicating
their own desired needs and results in the target language.
So let’s get back to the aforementioned
notion of using ESL games for review. Using ESL games in the classroom as a
tool for review is a given for most ESL teachers. However, what is more
important to examine, is that there is a limit to how much new information
learners can retain within a given time. ESL games are a key element which
allows you to not only simply review, but to freely navigate around those
limits of language learning, and review what your ESL students have already
learned for the varying and sometimes dynamic amounts of time required as well
as extend that learning into something new.
I have taught countless ESL students with
a commanding understanding and repertoire of English grammar rules. However, I
guess a fair amount of you who may be reading along here maybe be able to guess
what I am going to say next. They can’t speak. At all. Grammar must be
understood more intimately than as a set of rules or principles and must be
familiar in a communicative sense. By using ESL games to learn the ESL teachers
allows for one of the most important things to take place in language learning
– for their students to bridge that which can be perceived as a daunting chasm
between innumerable grammar rules and exceptions to those grammar rules and the
simple task of communicating precisely and freely. In short, ESL games to learn
are excellent tools for focusing on grammar communicatively.
Let’s not only be frank here but
practical as well. Adaptability is a key aspect in the classroom, and your
classes can fly or fall depending on how well you can adapt the ESL learning
task or target language to your ESL students and how well you can adapt to the
myriad of other factors you are facing in that particular day or class. ESL
games to learn are adaptable in most every way including age, level, and
interest. They also require little effort or prep time once have you developed
them so that you can focus on adapting them in the ways that are needed for
each class or student you encounter over time.
Any ESL teacher out their knows that the
ESL job market differences from teaching in your native country and framework
in several ways. One of those differences is that you may be teaching ESL
adults one year and ESL kindy students the next. As an ESL teacher, you have to
be ready to adapt to the current market and status of language learning
occurring wherever in the wide wide world you may be teaching. Nearly all ESL
games can be adapted in some way or manner to fit the level, age, or interests
you may be teaching at the time. For instance, flashcards, which are the
cornerstone of a large percentage of ESL games to learn are completely
adaptable regardless of age. The same ESL flashcards which you may be using for
teaching ESL kindy can be quite useful for ESL adult beginner students you
might also be teaching.
Or No Prep
Once you have invested the time of creating an ESL game to learn resource you’ll find that you’ve freed up some time for yourself in future classes as well which will require the same target language as you cycle through the school years or alternate classes. As ESL teachers start to gain full command of our their time they are better able to employ ESL games to learn to maximize language acquisition. Furthermore, this frees up the ESL teacher to adapt their ESL game to learn resource to whichever of the four aspects of language they wish to focus or expand on whether it be speaking, reading, writing, or listening.
Hal of Halandsteve english here 🙂 I moved from the southern U.S to Korea 8 years ago to teach english. Making changes within the classroom didn’t seem to be significant enough, so I branched out of the classroom into materials and methodology along the way. These days I feel much more in my element! Feel free to contact me at
Another guest post – thank you to the wonderful André Hedlund for sharing his thoughts on the relationships between neuroscience and language learning and for debunking some all-too-prevalent neuromyths.
I grew up thinking that if I wanted to learn another language and become proficient, I’d have to start at a very young age. And to be fair I did. Not because of what I wanted, of course. My parents pushed me and I believe I must’ve been 6 or 7 when I had my first English class. My dad was fluent, like most Swedes, but my mom wasn’t. She only knew it was important for me to start early. Paradoxically, Swedish was not important at all, at least in my parents’ minds. Even worse, if I tried to learn it while learning English and if my dad insisted on only talking in Swedish to me at home, that meant that I wouldn’t learn any language well, including Portuguese, my mother tongue, and that was a horrible thing to consider.
The story above illustrates what the average population thinks about language learning. When I say average here I’m actually including educated people too. It’s just something we hear from teachers, “specialists”, pedagogues, other parents. Now I’m sitting in a café in possibly one of the most multilingual countries in Europe, Switzerland, and the sad part of this story is that I could be at least as good as my cousin who’s in her early twenties, has been raised in a multilingual home and is fluent in Portuguese, French, Italian, German, and English. My aunt, her mom, is Brazilian and didn’t know any better. She only wanted to make sure her daughter grew up with a Brazilian sense of identity and could talk to her family when she traveled to Brazil. Her dad just spoke the language that was the most natural to him: Swiss German. The others she learned at school.
My Swedish would be thriving if it were not for this false claim about how our brains work when it comes to language learning, a neuromyth as commonly referred to. Neuromyths about language acquisition and learning, and basically everything else, are widespread. “Kids are going to get confused if the foreign language is predominant at home”, “You’re too old to learn a second language”, “That new school has created a revolutionary method that makes you fluent in six months”, “I don’t have the talent to learn languages”, “Native-speaker teachers are way better”. Many of these ideas could be debunked if we just stopped and looked at what research says about language learning.
Speaking of research, the great news is that we now have an exciting new science that looks at the contributions of neuroscience, psychology, and education, summarizes them into practical concepts and allows educators, teachers, parents, school owners, and policymakers to inform their decisions on sound scientific evidence. It is called the science of Mind, Brain, and Education (MBE). Tokuhama-Espinosa (2014) stresses the fact that MBE is a transdisciplinary approach that does not prioritize any one parent field (neuroscience, psychology, or education) over the others. That is important because many of the neuromyths stated above came to existence because of claims based only on neuroscience or only on psychology as I describe ahead.
One of the common neuromyths is that it is impossible, or at least nearly impossible, to learn a second language after the so-called critical period. Many authors have contributed to this notion, particularly Penfield (1959), Lenneberg (1967), and Krashen (1973), influenced by studies in animal models in the 50s and 60s about other functions and critical periods (see Hubel & Wiesel, 1959) which seemed to be confirmed with the case of feral children and L1, such as Genie (Curtiss, 1977). Nevertheless, when language is considered in its entirety, not only phonologically, with an obsessive focus on near-native accent, we could easily say that research shows that anyone can learn a second language to proficiency after the so-called critical period or periods. That’s the thing, different authors propose different critical periods for different aspects of language (see Kuhl et al. 2014; Hartshorne et al. 2018). But we now have plenty of evidence to support the idea that the brain is highly plastic and that we can learn at any age (Tokuhama-Espinosa, 2014). Science supports the notion that what really matters is how far you go and not how early you started (Abutalebi, 2008; Andrews et al 2013).
We also know that children and adults benefit from bilingualism (and multilingualism) (Marian & Shook, 2012). Some of the cognitive gains are improved learning, better reasoning and mathematical skills, improved school performance, and protection against neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and dementia (delaying the early symptoms by 5 years!).
Research on how long it takes to learn English as a second or foreign language varies greatly but it does not differ significantly from the recommended amount of hours by the Common Europen Framework of Reference (CEFR). Hakuta et al. (2000) studied foreign kids in two districts in California and it took them 3 to 5 years to be orally proficient and 4 to 7 to be academically proficient in English. A technical report by Pearson (click here) suggests that fast learners will enter the B2 level after 760 hours of study, which is more than what CEFR suggests ( around 500-600 hours).
Whichever the reference when we’re discussing second language learning, we can safely assume that learning a language from scratch in 6 months would require something like 100 hours a month (around 5 hours a day from Monday to Friday) and assume that students can handle the enormous amount of information they’d be exposed to, allowing their brains to consolidate memory, which requires time and space. It may as well be possible, but not quite likely, particularly in an English as a Foreign Language context where students are only exposed to L2 in class. That’s why we need to be highly suspicious of methods that promise such incredible outcomes. Nevertheless, as I said, it could be possible. In fact, I could talk about memorization techniques used by memory athletes and go on about this, but I’ll save that for a future post because it’s not the reality for most of us.
Finally, the research we have available on how effective native-speaker teachers are and how they are viewed by students suggests that both native and non-native teachers can be equally effective and preferred by the students, which means that what really matters is teaching qualification and effort to cater to students’ needs (Mossu, 2006; Mullock, 2010; Chun, 2014; Wang & Jenkins, 2016).
All these discoveries came from serious research and they have real implications in ELT. The wrong, or partially wrong, ideas being spread for ages may contribute to stigmatization, exclusion, reduced motivation, capitalization on methods that actually do not work and the like. That’s where MBE is handy: to fight against neuromyths and inform everyone about how we actually learn. Let’s just say that if my mom and dad had known about these things that MBE is trying to promote back in the day when I was growing up, I’d have learned Swedish and probably be quite fluent nowadays. Who knows, I might even have gotten better grades at school because of the cognitive gains. Well, I suppose we’ll never know now and I’ll have to keep talking to my half-siblings in English.
My final message to those of you who are in education, ELT or any area that involves learning: learn about MBE and help debunk some of the neuromyths. Start from Tracey Tokuhama-Espinosa’s wonderful book Making classrooms better: 50 practical applications of mind, brain, and education science. That’s a great starting point. If we all learn more about how the brain actually works and follow the new developments of neuroscience, particularly how they can be applied in educational settings, everyone wins.
Andrews, E., Frigau, L., Voyvodic-Casabo, C., Voyvodic, J., & Wright, J. (2013). Multilingualism and fMRI: Longitudinal Study of Second Language Acquisition. Brain sciences, 3(2), 849-76. doi:10.3390/brainsci3020849
Abutalebi J (2008) Neural aspects of second language representation and language control. Acta Psychol 128: 466–478.
Chun, S. Y. (2014). EFL learners’ beliefs about native and non-native English-speaking teachers: perceived strengths, weaknesses, and preferences. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 35(6), 563–579. https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2014.889141
Curtiss, S. (1977). Genie: A psycholinguistic study of a modern-day “wild child”. New York: Academic Press
Hakuta, K., Butler, Y. G., & Witt, D. (2000). How Long Does It Take English Learners To Attain Proficiency?.
Hartshorne, Tenenbaum, & Pinker. (2018). A critical period for second language acquisition:Evidence from 2/3 million English speakers. Cognition,177, 263-277.
Hubel, D., & Wiesel, T. (1959). Receptive fields of single neurones in the cat’s striate cortex. The Journal of Physiology,148, 574-91.
Krashen, S. (1973). Lateralization, language learning, and the critical period. Language Learning, 23, 63–74.
Kuhl PK, Ramírez RR, Bosseler A, Lin JF, Imada T. (2014). Infants’ brain activity in response to speech. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Aug 2014, 111 (31) 11238-11245; DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1410963111
Lenneberg, E. H. (1967). The biological foundations of language. Hospital Practice, 2(12), 59-67.
Time. The greatest nemesis to all teachers and school owners. Whether it’s managing to cover all stages in your lesson plan or just lamenting there are not enough hours in the day, lack of time is often cited as being one of the most difficult aspects of our profession. Striking that perfect work-life balance to deliver great lessons and still have time to explore the wonders of the country that you’ve adopted is challenging, and seeking time-saving solutions seem to be on most teachers’ wish lists.
As an ADOS and mum of two, juggling work and family life takes its toll, especially living in Southern Italy where the concept of time is flexible and even the seemingly most simple of tasks like posting a letter can shave hours off your day. While I’m enjoying a well earned summer break, I’m aware of the new school year creeping into view and am starting to think of how I can best be prepared for the year ahead. I feel privileged that we teachers get to make resolutions twice a year, both in January as the new year rolls in and again in September as we set ourselves the goals and objectives we aim to achieve in the forthcoming school year.
Having raided the stationery department, I’m now sitting down to think of my personal and team goals for the school year and like all resolutions while they’re made with good intentions and an injection of energy after a well-deserved rest, it’s easy to let the day to day of school life, deadlines and family commitments become obstacles in the way of achieving our goals. So how can we and our teachers stay motivated?
Growth comes through reflection and giving ourselves the time to reflect on our experiences can pave the way for more of those magical light bulb moments occurring more and more often but we need to find ways to make time to allow these to happen so that we don’t fall back on behaviours that while gaining us time can cause our teaching to stagnate and stunt our professional growth.
* START NOW: The initial and undoubtedly most important factor in motivation is setting out clear goals of what you want and can realistically manage to achieve. The hardest part of realising our goals is taking that first step but making that initial commitment, signing up to that course, buying that book or writing that checklist is a sure-fire way to release the dopamine which will keep us motivated to stick to our objectives. Procrastination is always lurking so why not start NOW. Think about 6 things you want to achieve over the next school year, either from a teaching or management perspective depending on your context. Make sure they are specific and measurable in some way, for example instead of saying ‘I want better classroom management skills’, say ‘I want to reduce the level of L1 in my classroom by introducing multi-level activities which appeal to different learner styles’. By breaking down objectives into small, achievable chunks which you can clearly see the extent of their success you will increase motivation whether it be intrinsic or extrinsic.
* STICK TO A SCHEDULE – From the outset, decide how and when you are going to dedicate time to achieving your goals. We are, after all, creatures of habits and so to become successful we need to make our tasks part of our behavioural routine. Ask yourself how you can make time work for you? My goal is to dedicate more time to reflecting on my teaching. So a small change I’m making, which will hopefully have big results, is changing my lesson plan template to include a reflection section where after the lesson I can quickly write which aspects were successful and which didn’t work. This will help me build up a better picture overall of classes and methods which will inform all of my teaching, fingers crossed.
Knowing exactly when you can find time in your daily schedule will make you more likely to stick to goals: perhaps your daily commute is the perfect time to dedicate to watching webinars or listening to podcasts, maybe instead of checking Instagram you can spend an hour every morning reading a book or following some key writers on Twitter. By making it part of your daily routine, and an enjoyable part, you’re more likely to stick to it.
* A PROBLEM SHARED… Hands up if you’re guilty of taking on the world and not delegating or asking for help as often as you probably should. I imagine most of us are guilty of piling our plates too high with work commitments and therefore giving ourselves more stress than we actually need. I wax lyrical about how teaching means we ourselves are always learning, so let’s make sure that we are dedicating enough time to listen to others.
New perspectives, advice and input will all prove invaluable when it comes to achieving our own CPD objectives so make sure you take the time to go for that coffee (or glass of wine) and have a good old chat. Developing relationships makes for a happy workplace and we all know that positivity breeds productivity; you may find that suddenly your workload reduces because of new collaborations or new ways to work on things you deemed to be time consuming.
* GOOD JOB! Recognising and celebrating effort, whether it’s yours or another member of your team’s is a great motivator. Student, teacher or manager, we all want to be appreciated and if we work hard that effort needs to be recognised. Recording goals and celebrating our achievements will help us to keep going when the going gets tough, which incidentally always seems to coincide with exam periods!
* TAKE TIME OUT – Teacher burnout happens far too frequently. Nobody can work effectively when they are exhausted, so know your limitations and learn the warning signs to know when a break is needed. Remember the process is just as important (if not more) than the end goal and every step you make shows change and growth. Recognise that everything you do towards your own development is positive and even if you don’t end up writing that book, speaking at that conference or finding that perfect way of presenting the subjunctive, you have gained purpose, confidence and furthered your passion and knowledge in your career. Be proud. And celebrate with chocolate cake.
I’ve read a lot of posts and articles recently encouraging teachers
to get out of their comfort zones and thought I’d start by sharing this graphic
And while I don’t disagree with anything suggested in this
post, I wonder how aware we actually are about what is, and isn’t, within our
own comfort zone? How do we define our own comfort zone? How do we take those
first tentative steps out of our comfort zone? Is it even necessary?
According to The Cambridge Dictionary, comfort zone can be defined as a situation in which you feel comfortable and in which your ability and determination are not being tested
Doesn’t sound like too bad a place to be, if you ask me! But is it really the best a teacher can do for their students? If we spend a lesson testing our learners’ ability and determination, surely it is only fair that we should be put to the same test? So, how do we know, exactly, what might be in (or out of) our comfort zone?
For the purposes of this post I conducted a little (extremely unscientific) research. I asked teachers from around the world ‘How would you define your comfort zone, as a teacher?’ Firstly, yes, I phrased the question badly – I assumed that the concept of a comfort zone would be universal – turns out, it’s not! There were lots of responses involving coffee, a comfy chair, no children and even the pub. Many more responses were about the type of learners or lessons that people like to teach; C1/2, business, adults, poetry etc. What very few seemed to do, was to equate it to their methods, activities and style of teaching. Maybe defining our comfort zones by what we enjoy is no bad thing though.
My favourite answer (thank you Philip Shigeo Brown) was ‘A developmental place where we often strive to be and yet strive to grow beyond by getting out of it’. I reckon he’s pretty much hit the nail on the head there. Or at least he would have done if people were actually aware of the existence of their own comfort zone.
Senninger defined the different learning zones long these lines;
The Comfort Zone – the area in which you feel you have mastery, where you are happy, content and confident in your abilities.
The Learning Zone – where you stretch yourself, try something new, feel a little discomfort but not much in the way of stress. Looking at new ideas and thinking ‘yes, I could probably give that a go’.
The Panic Zone – does exactly what is says on the tin, new practices which genuinely scare the heebie-jeebies out of you. Stress on an unproductive level. Cold sweats, nightmares, irrational urges to go to the loo 47 times in 5 minutes, you get the idea.
On the whole, I get this explanation
and I like it. I would probably make just one teensy change…
I don’t see how the lines can be defined, there must be degrees of challenge? Surely there can’t be some arbitrary tipping point at which things go from stretch to utter terror? (having said that, my first conference presentation came jolly close…). To my mind there are some ideas that I am more comfortable with trying than others; some practices I would more readily incorporate into my teaching than others; some contexts that I would find more challenging, terrifying and stressful than others, but would still give it a go (as I do, periodically, with teenagers) and some stuff that I would just never even countenance (not much – but some).
The thing is, as we stretch ourselves, the things that start off panic inducing, gradually move into our learning (or stretch) zone. As the comfort zone becomes wider, the slightly scary thing becomes the comfortable thing and the terrifying thing also moves – to become a somewhat less terrifying thing. Imagine the plughole in the bath – that big hairy spider will go down it eventually, as the water spirals round.
If you google the topic you will find loads of ‘inspirational’ graphics along these lines.
Now, I don’t know about you – but I just find this plain depressing. Is it really suggesting that unless we take some almighty leap into the unknown, we will never be any more than mediocre, with sad mediocre lives and an uninspiring outlook on life? This is just unrealistic (a bit like a celeb’s Instagram accounts – where everything is perfect, they all wake up with a full face of make-up, a kale smoothie in their hand and no-one sweats at the gym). If we used this as ‘inspiration’ we’d NEVER get to the ‘good stuff’ because it’s just too far away!
The key is to take little steps. Reflect on your teaching, see where your own comfort zone lies and then decide where and whether you should move on a little (or a lot). Find something that interests you; a question you’d like the answer to, a new activity that helps your learners, collaborate with a colleague, read, observe a colleague and copy something that you feel works well, research other approaches to a recurrent classroom problem.
Your comfort zone is just that, comfortable. It isn’t a prison but neither should it be your goal (I was going to say it isn’t a gaol but neither should it be your goal – but wasn’t sure if old English words were universal and, actually, it looks a bit naff, but hay ho).
There is nothing wrong with being comfortable in what you do (although there have been suggestions that the boredom of staying within your comfort zone may contribute to burnout) but, just for kicks, maybe add just a frisson of stretch.
Senninger, 2000 – Learning
Zone Model; Abenteuer leiten – in Abenteuern lernen (Facilitating adventures –
learning in adventures). Münster: Ökotopia Verlag