The Importance of Project Work in Language Learning

This guest post is from Shannon Amaadar (Kings English). I first came across Shannon via some excellent videos she had created to help teachers foster more engagement and motivation with learners in the classroom. I am thrilled she has agreed to contribute this post on how to use project based learning to build enthusiasm and autonomy for learning.

My classes used to start with students sitting in desks with their books out waiting for instruction. They weren’t excited, I wasn’t excited. That is, until I realised that there’s a better way to learn.

Language is something that’s experienced and used. It’s a tool to express your ideas and a means to tell stories and pass knowledge. Why are we relegating it vocabulary lists and grammar rules?

Using the language is so important for acquisition. Giving it practicality and usefulness makes learning easier and more enjoyable. We can do this by making a project the main focus of classroom activity.

Problem solving and discovery are two of the best ways we learn anything. This type of learning encourages our brains to be at alert. It thinks the information is important and hangs on to it, rather than putting it in short term memory then dumping it later on. Project based learning (PBL) is a great way to get students thinking about language in a different way.

Getting started

Setting up a class project can not only help students acquire language, it strengthens other skills such as teamwork and critical thinking. All while accomplishing a task. It makes classes interesting again and students open up to learning.

According to John McCarthy at TeachThought.com students who have a direct interest in the subject they’re studying, engage more and achieve better results. By making the lesson relevant to the students, they’ll work harder towards their goal. PBL is a great way to practice this.

The best way to begin with project work is to come up with a subject that everyone can get behind. Maybe you introduce students to the effects of pollution or solving a community problem such as turning a vacant plot of land into a garden or helping feed the homeless. Whatever your topic, make sure it’s something students can get passionate about.

Once you’ve established a goal, work as a class to come up with solutions. If we take the example of plastic pollution, perhaps students could design a tote bag to replace plastic shopping bags. Materials and designs could all be discussed in English, and the final product could use English designs elements like phrases. Finally the finished tote bags can be used to fundraise to donate to a local cause.

By making the language something that is useful, something that has meaning, students are more likely to retain the vocabulary and grammar rules, than if they simply wrote them down and tried to memorise.

Learning English has now become a fun activity and something that students can look forward to doing each class. This is so important, because students, who are bored, don’t learn.

Assessment

One of the great things about project work is how easy it is to assess understanding. You can see how well each student is doing by looking at factors such as participation, and how well they follow direction.

It’s a great idea to take some time at the end of the class to have a quick discussion. It’s ok to ask students how well they understand what was talked about in the lesson. Encourage students to give you honest answers and provide extra help in understanding where necessary.

When students aren’t afraid to make mistakes and speak up, language acquisition happens quickly. It’s important for students to understand that making mistakes is a part of discovery. When something doesn’t work or is wrong we learn from it better than if it worked or was right. Project work is all about discovery and making mistakes.

Having “check points” throughout the project work can help you gauge student understanding as well. At various stages of the work students can answer a short questionnaire, discuss where they are in the project development, or self assess with a rubric distributed by the teacher.

Making sure that all students are up to speed is essential for the success of the whole class. If students are falling behind, catching it quickly and offering extra help or guidance to those who need it will help everyone be successful.

Structure

Centering lessons on group project work might sound to some like teachers have given up. Allow the students to do as they will, and hope for the best. This is the farthest from the truth.

When using project based Learning, the teacher’s role is to set the parameters and guide students along the way, without interfering and allowing for mistakes.

It’s common for students to be unsure, always asking for guidance and assistance. It’s important that, as the teacher, you stay back a little and encourage discovery. Asking questions like: “what would happen if…?” and “why don’t we try this and see what happens?” Encouraging students to explore will make them feel more comfortable to do just that.

According to Dr. Ping Li in an interview with Francois Grosjean Ph.D. for Psychology today, there are 5 parts of a language that our brains must process. Lexicon, phonology, orthography, syntax, and pragmatics, therefore it would make sense to engage our brains in activities that encourage use in all of these areas.

PBL may be the best way for learners to experience, make use of, and retain language. It doesn’t hurt that it’s fun and fosters friendships and cooperation at the same time.

Try using this method in your classroom and see what results you get out of it. You might find your students are achieving well beyond your expectations.

Fighting Dyslexia

This week’s guest post is from the oh-so-knowledgeable Jood Burkinshaw, a SEN and dyslexia specialist working in schools and the armed forces in the UK. Jood gives us some practical approaches to dealing with dyslexic adult learners.

Years ago I was covering an English lesson for a teacher who’d set the rather open ended task:

‘Write about your saddest day’.

Two young men sat together at the front. One produced a heart rending and articulate account of the day, ten years before, when his dad had told him and his brother that their mum had died. The other, after 40 minutes of sweat and toil, rubbing out, crossing out and general discomfort, produced the following: ‘MY sabbist bay wars wen my gerdil bieb’.

What struck me was the indignity of this chap not being able to express himself in writing: the beginning of my career long mission to understand and mitigate the effects of what we now know as Dyslexia.

The Rose Review produced in 2009 was a major turning point. The resulting report produced a definitive description of Dyslexia alongside a commitment to training a cohort of specialist teachers (of which I was one) who would be qualified to assess for Dyslexia and advise teachers in removing inherent barriers to learning.

The Rose definition is as follows:

  • Dyslexia is a learning difficulty that primarily affects the skills involved in accurate and fluent word reading and spelling.
  • Characteristic features of dyslexia are difficulties in phonological awareness, verbal memory and verbal processing speed.
  • Dyslexia occurs across a range of intellectual abilities.

The BDA (British Dyslexia Association) points out that a dyslexic learner can show a combination of abilities and difficulties that affect the learning process. Some have strengths in areas, such as design, problem solving, creative skills, interactive skills and oral skills.

  • It is best thought of as a continuum, not a distinct category, and there are no clear cut-off points.

Current research indicates that children with a family history of ‘risk’ factors (e.g. a parent is dyslexic) but who are learning to read may still be on the dyslexic continuum. It is possible that difficulties will begin to manifest themselves as the student progresses through school.

  • Co-occurring difficulties may be seen in aspects of language, motor coordination, mental calculation, concentration and personal organisation, but these are not, by themselves, markers of dyslexia.

This gives us a structure for both assessment and teaching.

Fast forward to 2020 ………………

Somehow (long story), after a long career as a secondary school SENDco, then a peripatetic specialist teacher supporting schools from infant to sixth form; I’m now contracted to the RAF where I work with Dyslexic personnel.

We identify by assessment, the spikes and dips in their learning profiles and teach them, alongside their line managers, how to achieve optimum functionality through their learning, their training and their professional development.

Whilst all my teaching is individualised, there are a few core and generic principles that I come back to again and again. These are encompassed in the following, the focus here is on independent study and exam preparation, but the principles can be applied in many teaching and learning situations:

FOR THE TEACHER:

  • Clearly explain assessment/task requirements
  • Allow 25% extra time for exams and assessments where possible, including earlier access to course materials.
  • Consider visual stress and use suitable screen colours (green is best) / whiteboard pen colours (black and blue being the worst)
  • Offer printed material on buff or pale green paper
  • Offer electronic versions of study materials where possible, so that the learner can adjust the format himself.

FOR THE LEARNER:

Proof reading techniques:

On screen:

  • Choose a large font – ariel 14 is suitable
  • Double space the document
  • Highlight in grey or yellow
  • If/ when available, read aloud /Dragon Naturally Speaking to read back
  • Check one line at a time; reading one word at a time to avoid reading what you think is there, as opposed to what is actually there
  • Remove highlight colour for that line when checked
  • Remove bullet points and extra spacings to convert to prose if required.

Effective Reading Techniques:

When reading is laborious, it uses so much brain power that there isn’t always any left for remembering or understanding what’s been read.

Paradoxically, adding in some extra brain processes can make your reading more effective in terms of understanding and remembering:

  • visual mapping of material (noting the page layout and headings/ bold print etc)
  • if material isn’t chunked or broken up, look for distinguishing features such as a dash, capitalisation etc, to visually chunk for yourself
  • take prior note of number of items, where there are bullet points or sections
  • mentally categorise the information in more than one way – cross referencing reinforces what you know and helps to find bits you forgot
  • make a mental note of anything you found amusing/ confusing/ interesting
  • make a mental note of anything you want to ask a question about

Reading Techniques to try when required to read and remember bulky or densely printed material:

  • Note where the full stops are
  • Read a sentence at a time, in your head first, then aloud to confirm if it makes sense
  • Mentally note any tricky words
  • Make use of context clues – what is it likely to say, given the words around it?
  • Mentally summarise, at suitable intervals
  • Allow yourself ‘brain breaks’ when you begin to find the reading more difficult – just a minute’s break or even a few seconds will allow your brain to rest then start processing successfully again.

Avoiding Spelling Errors:

  • Use on-screen ‘sticky notes’ as reminders for commonly mis-spelt words
  • Have a look at the spelling section on www.bbc.co.uk/teach/skillwise/English
  • Use mnemonics
  • Consider the root word:
    • eg Cognitive, from the root word Cognition
  • Use colour coding (eg just highlight the tricky bit)
  • Look for words within words
  • Use visual links and reminders:
‘Electric Ian’ the electrician
  • Break down the word into memorable chunks:
    • Pharmaceutical pharm ace u tical

Memory Techniques and Study Skills:

Bear in mind the need to address all 4 quadrants of the study cycle:

STORE:

  • Make your notes as visually memorable as possible:
  • Quadrants for hand written notes or diagrams
  • Chunking and bullet points
  • Colour coding and highlighting
  • Consciously try to improve your mental storage system:
  • Anchor points in your location eg imagining the information stored on areas in the exam location
  • Store information alongside images or a scenario or story

SECURE:

Consolidate knowledge by:

  • verbal discussion
  • practical application
  • repetition – as on the Forgetting Curve

The intervals on the timescale axis can be used for review processes and practice

REVIEW:

  • Don’t just read through notes:
  • reformat:
  • mindmap layout
  • flowchart of process
  • diagram
  • list
  • chunked bullet points
  • picture transposed onto visual location
  • verbalise:
  • read aloud
  • use Dragon or other text to speech to read aloud
  • have it read to you by a human
  • verbal q and a session
  • chant a ‘mantra’ ….. (repeat a formula or sequence over and over until you can’t forget it) good one for the car!
  • Use a traffic light (RAG) system to denote the areas needing the most or least review
  • Follow up with methodical use of index cards:
    • Replace at back of box if secure (green)
    • In middle if partially secure (amber)
    • Near front if insecure (red)

Retrieve:

  • Successful retrieval relies on the previous stages having been addressed thoroughly
  • Retrieve in ‘brain dump’ style – whatever is triggered by the question or challenge, in no particular order, then put into order once salient points are recalled
  • Retrieve by recalling triggers from storage phase – eg quadrants, colours, number of boxes, number of bullets, page layout
  • Retrieve by searching mental files for appropriate storage – eg did you visually map this information, or use a story, or picture a scenario
  • Retrieve by environment – where were you when you revised it? Who gave you the information? Who gave the best answers to questions?
  • Before writing answers, allow some planning time

The art of seduction: Why connection should come before everything else

Some more wise words from André Hedlund (Edcrocks) this week. I am becoming more and more fascinated by the science of learning and how this should influence our approach to teaching (and life in general). If you too are interested in learning more – from the horse’s mouth, no less, André will be offering a webinar next month entitled – The Brain & How to Help our Learners Learn (Metacognitive Strategies according to the Science of Learning) (Link here for more info and to sign up)

What really drives people to do anything? On a molecular level, we could say it’s a very important neuromodulator, which has become quite popular not only in the scientific literature but also on TV, blogs and in magazine pieces: our beloved dopamine. The effects it has on the brain are nothing short of extraordinary. Dopamine is released when we have a sense of anticipation of something rewarding, not so much when we experience the reward itself. How does this knowledge change what I must prioritize as a teacher in the classroom? That’s exactly what I intend to discuss in my second blog post for ELT.Training.

Imagine you see an attractive person at a pub in London. You’re single and the person has made eye contact. You look back at the person and realize you’re incredibly attracted to them. What is happening in your brain is quite amazing. An incredible cocktail of neurotransmitters such as serotonin, oxytocin, and dopamine is being released from your neurons into the synapses and being captured by other neurons. The entire process just makes you feel wonderfully well. Those who have engaged in the art of seduction know exactly what I’m talking about. But what does that have to do with your students in the classroom?

Well, let’s start with what makes people engage in the first place. When you sense a dangerous or unwanted situation, something that might make you uncomfortable, your body releases something that causes the bad type of stress. It’s called cortisol. Cortisol plays a role in memory formation, especially remembering things to avoid, but long-term cortisol release has a bunch of effects that actually impact learning negatively. You feel tense and you can’t use your prefrontal cortex, the hub in your brain where sophisticated thinking and reasoning take place. What does that all mean? It basically means that we want more dopamine and just the right amount of cortisol to get people engaged.

The oversimplification above is just to give you some grounds for what I propose next. Very much like the seduction that went on at the pub I mentioned before, we need to seduce our students. Now, please don’t get me wrong here. What I mean is that we need to seduce their brains and make them want to engage with us in class. This is so important that I believe it should be the top priority of every lesson. If you think about it, not seducing your students’ brains will likely generate disinterested students who’ll have a hard time paying attention. Reduced attention leads to reduced memory consolidation. Or even worse. Students who feel intimidated, uncomfortable or something else because they have no emotional connection with the teacher will have a hard time accessing their sophisticated thinking, reasoning and, consequently, learning skills.

What’s something that you can do then? I’d like to list a couple of very simple, yet quite effective, suggestions that you can work on to seduce your students’ brains:

1-    Show them who you are

I always take time, particularly in the very first lesson, to connect with my students. They are curious about what makes their teacher cool and interesting. A very easy way to do that is to start the lesson with a True or False about yourself. Make sure you mention the silly and amazing things you’ve done in your life

2-    Find out who your students are

This takes time but you need to establish this connection with them. I have specific activities for them to tell the class a little bit about themselves and I always take the opportunity to talk to them individually and ask questions about things they like or do. I also encourage them to share their passions and have them prepare presentations on their hobbies.

3-    Show enthusiasm

How many times have I been to a conference or classroom observation where the teacher was extremely knowledgeable and the topic was interesting but they looked like they didn’t want to be there or spoke in such a monotonous way? I lost the count. One of the things that gets us engaged straight away is passion. And passion creates enthusiasm. If you look excited to be there, you’ll be activating their mirror neuron system and that helps students get and keep engaged. Read a little more about it here.

4-    Have a classroom mascot, like my Mr. Trunk

I decided to buy a stuffed elephant to connect with my students and instill a sense of responsibility in them. It may sound silly, but it has worked wonders! Mr. Trunk, the name we gave him, has traveled with my students in Brazil and the world. The best part is that my students took him on vacation or for the weekend and integrated him into their routine. They had to bring back photos and tell us what they had done with Mr. Trunk. I found out so many interesting things I wouldn’t have because of this silly activity. You can read about his story here

5-    Be kind and understanding

Someone once told me that what we can see from someone’s life is just the tip of the iceberg. We don’t know what is going on in their homes, their other classes, with their parents, siblings, friends etc. Assuming that students might be behaving badly because that’s who they are may be incorrect. Being kind conveys an important message: “I’m here if you need to share something and I might be able to help”. With their defense system down, it’s easier to connect.

6-    Be firm and keep your promises

One of the things adults keep doing to kids is break their promises. This creates unstable relationships and mistrust. Students need to learn how to regulate their behavior and that required support. They want a role model, someone they look up to and you can be that person. If you promise a reward, do it. If you promise a punishment, do it too.

7-    Take their needs and interests into consideration

Students are humans and they get tired. Give them a break, show you care about them. They love technology and would love to use their mobiles to show you something. Set moments to do it in class. Some of them might have a particular taste in music, let them show it to the rest of the class.

8-    Keep them curious

Our brain is programmed to be drawn to novelty. It’s so strong that it’s basically inevitable. I realize that we’re busy planning lessons and that we can run out of ideas many times, but the key to long-term engagement is to constantly bring something interesting, new, different to class. Have a puzzle or a mystery that will be revealed at the end of the lesson. Answer questions that are unrelated to the content of the lesson just to kill their curiosity.I could go on and on with more tips, but I think you get the point. But if the point isn’t clear enough, here’s what you need to do from now on: In the wise words of Immordino-Yang and António Damásio, “we feel, therefore we learn”. Live by that motto and remember that your students need that dopamine rush to want to do things, to be engaged. If you become irresistible in the classroom, chances are you’ll seduce their brains and make your lessons much more memorable. That comes before any memorization technique, study strategy or student-centered activity you can think of, trust me. Give it a try and let me know. You can also read something on my blog about that might help here.

Video for the Terrified (or just slightly nervous)

In a departure from the usual written form, this week’s guest post is a video from Eric Oscar Wesch from Etacude. If you’ve ever wondered about creating your own videos, but were too terrified or overwhelmed by the tech to start, this post will calm your fears, explain why we should all be doing it and get you started with tech that you probably already own. You’ll be making videos in no time!

Collaborate to Innovate

OK, before we start, I’ll admit I do have a vested interest. I firmly believe that we all know something and should pass it on to help us all grow as teachers. That said, I’m not the only one…

You probably don’t know me, I’m not Scott Thornbury or Jeremy Harmer (not least because I’m a girl) but neither am I Penny Ur or Laura Patsko some other big ‘name’ in the ELT world. I’m just a teacher, like you. The thing is, I know things that you don’t know and I’ve done things that you’ve yet to try, while you know stuff that I don’t and you’ve done things I’ve not even considered or had the guts to try – yet (go on, persuade me…). But then, you probably kind of had a sneaking feeling about that before you started to read, otherwise why would you be reading a post from someone you don’t yet know?

I’ve flipped classes, I’ve built a Moodle site from scratch, I’ve created courses and started a teaching business. I’ve navigated technology that I never imagined I’d be able to and I’ve met the most wonderful teachers. You may have done some of the same things, but you may also be able to hold the attention of a room full of teenagers, you may know how to use an interactive whiteboard, you may use dogme without batting an eyelid, you may be a marketing genius, you may be able to stand in front of a roomful of expectant people at a conference and not wish the ground would open up and swallow you – please, show me how to do these things.

Please, show all of us.

Many of us collaborate on a small scale, without even realising it. When you go into the staff room after a particularly stressful lesson and rant at your colleagues and someone offers a useful suggestion – that’s collaboration. You have learned another technique and your colleague has learned what not to do with that particular group of learners. Perhaps you have spent hours trying to find the perfect video for a lesson (we’ve all done it – that internet rabbit hole is a scary place), you are so pleased with yourself, you pat yourself on the back and show a colleague. That’s collaboration. Maybe you are stuck for an activity and post a request in a Facebook group. That’s collaboration too.

Broadwell (1969) suggests that development can be construed as a move from ‘unconscious incompetence’ to ‘conscious competence’. The idea being that we may be unaware that we are doing something badly until we realise it has been made better.  It is in this movement where collaboration is most productive – someone else’s advice or guidance is so much more supportive than a ‘superior’ telling you how to ‘improve’.

If we can move past the ‘phatic communion’ (Lansley) of just moaning together and agreeing with each other, then collaboration can be a truly rewarding and, dare I say it, fun approach to learning and developing our skills. There is really nothing more thrilling than have peers thank you for your insight into something and then act on it. It is a boost to your confidence, validates your ability and experience and is great for consolidating the knowledge that you may not even realised that you had in the first place. When this tacit knowledge (Sternberg & Horvath, 1999) is realised or extracted then collaboration is the most effective approach to professional development. That penny-dropping ‘duh!’ moment, when we suddenly realise that we had the answer all along, cannot be replicated in a lecture theatre or classroom while we ‘do’ obligatory staff development – this is the stuff that we come to naturally, because we need the answer or information.

My first conscious and deliberate act of collaboration was some years ago. I’d been teaching in the UK for a year or so post-CELTA. I was getting on OK, still doing the post-CELTA thing of spending every waking moment planning lessons for a part-time job, but getting on OK and feeling like a ‘proper’ teacher.

For the B2 groups, there were just two teachers, myself and another (we’ll call her Caroline – because that’s her name). We soon realised that our learners were jumping from one class to the other and losing any course continuity. So, we decided to collaborate on creating a shared scheme of work.

We spent that year planning lessons and syllabi together and sharing our work, so that we both taught the same lesson (or variations of) each week. The benefits were myriad. Our learners could attend whichever lesson was convenient each week and not miss anything, lesson planning time nearly halved (tea and chatting did slow us down a bit) and we each learnt about new activities, approaches and techniques that we hadn’t tried before. I also learned more about teaching in that year than I had working by myself and doing the CELTA; and I made a wonderful friend. I also used the school LMS to give learners access to materials after class, something which was new to Caroline.

We all (mostly) advocate learners working out stuff for themselves as the best method of acquiring the language, the same goes for us, the teachers. In this connected world, there are so many ways of collaborating and sharing our knowledge and experience to help both ourselves and others. Work with a friend, join a SIG, co-teach, make use of any of the 1000’s of groups on social media, attend a workshop (maybe even an ELT.Training interactive online workshop) or even just take time for a cup of tea and a chat. When we get together to find the answers to questions we may not even realise we have, we can move mountains.

So, show me what you know, show all of us.

References

Broadwell, Martin M. (20 February 1969). “Teaching for learning (XVI)“. wordsfitlyspoken.org. The Gospel Guardian.

Lansley, C (1994) Collaborative Development: an Alternative to Phatic Discourse and the art of Co-operative Development. ELT Journal, 48 (1): 50-6

Sternberg & Horvath (1998) Tacit Knowledge in Professional Practice: Researcher and Practitioner, Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc

Working on language learner pain-points through a coaching approach

This week’s guest post by the lovely Gabriella Kovács briefly discusses the basics of language coaching and gives you some ideas about how it works… and a very practical takeaway activity to use in your next lesson.

Something to identify is whether you are a coach coaching learners, or a language professional (teacher, trainer) using coaching elements, techniques and tools to add dimension to your classes. 
When you coach, you coach, when you teach, you may make use of specific coaching elements, but that is not coaching: that is teaching with a coaching approach.  In my experience of the past few years, the latter is basically what most language professionals need, this is what learning about LC can provide.

Language coaching is a process focusing on learner needs, interests, motivation and goals.  By identifying – with the learner – what and why they wish to achieve concerning their language learning and language usage goals, the missing pieces of the puzzle fall into place nicely.  By asking questions, guiding with empathy and positivity there will be space for the learner to come to terms with who they really are as language learners, language users and will increase their commitment to taking steps to reach their goals.

The definition goes: A conversation-based process with a purpose to map and create optimal language acquisition or language usage-related goals. The framework is based on strategies utilising intrinsic motivation and developing learning awareness, where both parties are equal partners.  It is important that clients (learners) claim ownership of their own development. (Source: Gabriella Kovács ACC)

Learners may feel stuck or demotivated, keep postponing exams, cannot significantly make progress, do not seem to find time to study the language, believe they are not good at learning languages etc.

For some, working on these issues might take one session, for others 3-6, it really is not about time. I have had clients collaborating with me for one session and leave happily, while others I support for months and work in true partnership with them, covering themes related to their workplace communication issues, exam preparation etc. 

Key questions to ask when beginning a coaching process might be:

In what way(s) is your goal supporting other aspects of your life?

Do you have an ideal type of teaching or lesson in mind you would feel comfortable with?

If you had 15 minutes a day to learn, what would you do in that time?

I work with adults in the corporate world and blend coaching with communication training. Many times I go in with 3-4 coaching tools and a handout and we discuss what is going on for the learner. I provide the attention all learners should be receiving – and they strive.

Let me present an activity I often use with learners when identifying motivation, learning preferences, strategy issues for them. 

  1. Print and cut about 6-10 quotes and place them on the table in front of the learner/s. (If you have a class, then get them into pairs or groups of maximum 3-4.)
  2. Go through the quotes and make sure learners understand the meanings of the words and phrases. Make this as short as possible. (Don’t interpret the meaning of the quotes themselves to them.)
  3. Ask learners to choose 2 quotes that resonate with how they are feeling in connection to their learning challenges right now, why that quote is important for them at present.  Let them explain to you or their partner/group. 
  4. Finally get them to highlight and share some interesting ideas.  Let them reflect on the activity: Why was this activity valuable for you?
  5. You can even collect their reflections and summaries on post-its and put them on the wall.

This is a precious activity as it needs very little preparation, will support learning awareness and deepen understanding of aspects of learning/teaching learners may not have thought of before. It may take 10 minutes, it may take 30 minutes… Be prepared for a fruitful conversation indeed!

These are my favourite quotes, but there are many, many more out there!

  • Insanity is doing the same thing over and over again and expecting different results.  – From the book Narcotics Anonymous
  • If you limit your actions in life to things that nobody can possibly find fault with, you will not do much. Lewis Carroll
  • Nothing is impossible… the word itself says I’m possible! Audrey Hepburn
  • The journey is the reward.  – Chinese proverb
  • People often say that motivation doesn’t last. Well, neither does bathing, that’s why we recommend it daily.  – Zig Ziglar
  • When it is obvious that the goals cannot be reached, don’t adjust the goals, adjust the action steps. – Confucius
  • Problems are only opportunities in work clothes. Henry Kaiser
  • Success depends upon previous preparation, and without such preparation there is sure to be failure. – Confucius
  • I never teach my pupils. I only attempt to provide the conditions in which they can learn. – Einstein
  • Tell me and I forget, teach me and I may remember, involve me and I learn.- Xun Kuang
  • A teacher is one who makes himself progressively unnecessary. –  Thomas Carruthers
  • That is what learning is. You suddenly understand something you’ve understood all your life, but in a new way. – Doris Lessing

Hope you enjoyed reading this and found it useful. 

Australian-born Gabriella Kovács ACC, an internationally certified language coach, business communication trainer (B.Ed., M.A.), mentor and teacher trainer. She is behind the idea of founding an organisation to support all professionals interested in language coaching, which has manifested in ILCA (International Language Coaching Association).

Her mission is to add dimension and depth to ongoing language learning practices and create a more holistic, person-centred approach for language professionals. She provides webinars, f2f and online trainings, publishes articles and works with her clients.

The Age-old Question: Why Are Games Important In The ESL Classroom?

This week’s guest post comes from the delightful Hal, from Hal and Steve English talking about the importance of games in the classroom.

There is a learning window, that is, a limit to how long students can maintain the focus required for language learning to occur. Games, aka activities, act as a way to expand that window of time in which language learning can occur. That being said, it may be true that teachers with little or no experience may use games in the classroom as a crutch for their inability to maintain that initial learning window as long as is necessary or desirable. However, what is entirely untrue, is that experienced and veteran teachers do not use games in the classroom. To the contrary, the only difference lies in maximizing the efficiency in how and to what degree they will employ those very same games and their understanding of why games are important. As they are especially useful in foreign language learning, let’s examine why games are important in the classroom within the context of ESL students and ESL teachers. As an ESL teacher you’ll know that there are aspects that are particularly important for you when you are at work in the classroom: effective or emotional aspects, creating an effective learning environment, cognitive aspects, and adaptability.

1. Affective Or Emotional Aspects

We’ve all dealt with this central issue. The student’s moods dictate their willingness to learn as well as how engaged they are in the learning process. ESL games in the classroom will help you trek through the emotional swamp of a classroom of youngsters by providing motivation, creating fun in the classroom, promoting spontaneous communication between the ESL students, and creating an environment in which the ESL students can speak and think in a free and creative manner.

Motivation

Your ESL students require structure in the classroom, but at the same time, they can feel desperate to break away from the routine of language learning. Simply put, their motivation may not be aligned with yours, but rather in escaping it. That’s where ESL games in the classrooms come in. As an ESL teacher, one of your main roles is to align your student’s motivations with your task of language acquisition. ESL games motivate students to participate in the language learning task which you are trying to accomplish. Which brings me to my next point, one of the main reasons ESL games are so motivating in the classroom, besides being a break from their dreaded language learning routine, are the elements of fun they create.

Fun

Simply put, when students are having fun, you typically find that they are the most amenable to language learning. Let’s be frank – language learning is an exceedingly difficult task which can frustrate you as well as the students. The constant effort required to understand, produce and manipulate the target language can be completely overwhelming and hard to maintain. When you employ ESL games in the classroom which contain elements of fun it allows your students to feel that they are ‘taking a break’ from the difficult task of language learning to have some fun. As they are having fun, they are practicing their language skills and furthering your goal of language acquisition.

Communication & Creating An Effective Learning Environment

ESL games in the classroom also create an environment which fosters opportunities for the free-willing style of communication which ESL students require to communicate their emotions and connect emotionally to their peers. This is also why student-focused learning is so important. ESL students may feel limited in how and when they can communicate with you – their teacher. However, when you employ ESL games in the classroom ESL students are better able to practice what they have learned with their peers around them who are operating within the same framework as them. The learning environment which is created when students are autonomously and spontaneously producing and communicating the target language beyond your direction is one of the most recognizable instances of effective language learning. If you’ve ever witnessed it occur, you know it’s a sight to behold! Sit back, watch the language learning proliferate, give guidance, and take notice of what specific issues might be popping up for each of your students

2. Cognitive

Most ESL teachers know that ESL games in the classroom are an effective tool for reviewing the target language being learned, but that’s just the tip of the iceberg. Let’s dive a little deeper.

Reinforce

Esl games in the classroom not only review what you’ve been teaching your ESL students but also reinforce it (which can be all the difference when it comes to long-term retention). ESL games provide a task-oriented vehicle through which your students can use the language you have taught them to achieve their own communicative goals. In short, they end up reinforcing what you have taught them by internalizing it. You’ll be delighted to see your students not only regurgitating what you have taught them in a literal sense but also negotiating their way into communicating their own desired needs and results in the target language.

Review

So let’s get back to the aforementioned notion of using ESL games for review. Using ESL games in the classroom as a tool for review is a given for most ESL teachers. However, what is more important to examine, is that there is a limit to how much new information learners can retain within a given time. ESL games are a key element which allows you to not only simply review, but to freely navigate around those limits of language learning, and review what your ESL students have already learned for the varying and sometimes dynamic amounts of time required as well as extend that learning into something new.

Grammar

I have taught countless ESL students with a commanding understanding and repertoire of English grammar rules. However, I guess a fair amount of you who may be reading along here maybe be able to guess what I am going to say next. They can’t speak. At all. Grammar must be understood more intimately than as a set of rules or principles and must be familiar in a communicative sense. By using ESL games to learn the ESL teachers allows for one of the most important things to take place in language learning – for their students to bridge that which can be perceived as a daunting chasm between innumerable grammar rules and exceptions to those grammar rules and the simple task of communicating precisely and freely. In short, ESL games to learn are excellent tools for focusing on grammar communicatively.

3. Adaptability

Let’s not only be frank here but practical as well. Adaptability is a key aspect in the classroom, and your classes can fly or fall depending on how well you can adapt the ESL learning task or target language to your ESL students and how well you can adapt to the myriad of other factors you are facing in that particular day or class. ESL games to learn are adaptable in most every way including age, level, and interest. They also require little effort or prep time once have you developed them so that you can focus on adapting them in the ways that are needed for each class or student you encounter over time.

Easily Adjustable

Any ESL teacher out their knows that the ESL job market differences from teaching in your native country and framework in several ways. One of those differences is that you may be teaching ESL adults one year and ESL kindy students the next. As an ESL teacher, you have to be ready to adapt to the current market and status of language learning occurring wherever in the wide wide world you may be teaching. Nearly all ESL games can be adapted in some way or manner to fit the level, age, or interests you may be teaching at the time. For instance, flashcards, which are the cornerstone of a large percentage of ESL games to learn are completely adaptable regardless of age. The same ESL flashcards which you may be using for teaching ESL kindy can be quite useful for ESL adult beginner students you might also be teaching.

Little Or No Prep

Once you have invested the time of creating an ESL game to learn resource you’ll find that you’ve freed up some time for yourself in future classes as well which will require the same target language as you cycle through the school years or alternate classes. As ESL teachers start to gain full command of our their time they are better able to employ ESL games to learn to maximize language acquisition. Furthermore, this frees up the ESL teacher to adapt their ESL game to learn resource to whichever of the four aspects of language they wish to focus or expand on whether it be speaking, reading, writing, or listening.

Hal of Halandsteve english here 🙂  I moved from the southern U.S to Korea 8 years ago to teach english.  Making changes within the classroom didn’t seem to be significant enough, so I branched out of the classroom into materials and methodology along the way. These days I feel much more in my element! Feel free to contact me at

https://www.facebook.com/halandsteveenglish.

A free sample of our work 🙂

https://halandsteveenglish.com/blogs/english-conversation-lesson-esl-efl/esl-uno-master-pack

Making Ourselves a Priority: Gaining Time and Motivation

And here it is – fanfare please – our first guest post!

Thank you to Olivia Price-Bates, ADOS at a school in Italy and recent participant on the 5 Day Summer Challenge (click here for details of the next one)

Time.  The greatest nemesis to all teachers and school owners. Whether it’s managing to cover all stages in your lesson plan or just lamenting there are not enough hours in the day, lack of time is often cited as being one of the most difficult aspects of our profession. Striking that perfect work-life balance to deliver great lessons and still have time to explore the wonders of the country that you’ve adopted is challenging, and seeking time-saving solutions seem to be on most teachers’ wish lists.

As an ADOS and mum of two, juggling work and family life takes its toll, especially living in Southern Italy where the concept of time is flexible and even the seemingly most simple of tasks like posting a letter can shave hours off your day.   While I’m enjoying a well earned summer break, I’m aware of the new school year creeping into view and am starting to think of how I can best be prepared for the year ahead.  I feel privileged that we teachers get to make resolutions twice a year, both in January as the new year rolls in and again in September as we set ourselves the goals and objectives we aim to achieve in the forthcoming school year.

Having raided the stationery department, I’m now sitting down to think of my personal and team goals for the school year and like all resolutions while they’re made with good intentions and an injection of energy after a well-deserved rest, it’s easy to let the day to day of school life, deadlines and family commitments become obstacles in the way of achieving our goals. So how can we and our teachers stay motivated?

Growth comes through reflection and giving ourselves the time to reflect on our experiences can pave the way for more of those magical light bulb moments occurring more and more often but we need to find ways to make time to allow these to happen so that we don’t fall back on behaviours that while gaining us time can cause our teaching to stagnate and stunt our professional growth.

   * START NOW: The initial and undoubtedly most important factor in motivation is setting out clear goals of what you want and can realistically manage to achieve. The hardest part of realising our goals is taking that first step but making that initial commitment, signing up to that course, buying that book or writing that checklist is a sure-fire way to release the dopamine which will keep us motivated to stick to our objectives.  Procrastination is always lurking so why not start NOW.  Think about 6 things you want to achieve over the next school year, either from a teaching or management perspective depending on your context.  Make sure they are specific and measurable in some way, for example instead of saying ‘I want better classroom management skills’, say ‘I want to reduce the level of L1 in my classroom by introducing multi-level activities which appeal to different learner styles’.  By breaking down objectives into small, achievable chunks which you can clearly see the extent of their success you will increase motivation whether it be intrinsic or extrinsic.

   * STICK TO A SCHEDULE – From the outset, decide how and when you are going to dedicate time to achieving your goals. We are, after all, creatures of habits and so to become successful we need to make our tasks part of our behavioural routine.  Ask yourself how you can make time work for you? My goal is to dedicate more time to reflecting on my teaching. So a small change I’m making, which will hopefully have big results, is changing my lesson plan template to include a reflection section where after the lesson I can quickly write which aspects were successful and which didn’t work.  This will help me build up a better picture overall of classes and methods which will inform all of my teaching, fingers crossed.  

Knowing exactly when you can find time in your daily schedule will make you more likely to stick to goals: perhaps your daily commute is the perfect time to dedicate to watching webinars or listening to podcasts, maybe instead of checking Instagram you can spend an hour every morning reading a book or following some key writers on Twitter.  By making it part of your daily routine, and an enjoyable part, you’re more likely to stick to it.

   *  A PROBLEM SHARED… Hands up if you’re guilty of taking on the world and not delegating or asking for help as often as you probably should.  I imagine most of us are guilty of piling our plates too high with work commitments and therefore giving ourselves more stress than we actually need.  I wax lyrical about how teaching means we ourselves are always learning, so let’s make sure that we are dedicating enough time to listen to others.

New perspectives, advice and input will all prove invaluable when it comes to achieving our own CPD objectives so make sure you take the time to go for that coffee (or glass of wine) and have a good old chat.  Developing relationships makes for a happy workplace and we all know that positivity breeds productivity; you may find that suddenly your workload reduces because of new collaborations or new ways to work on things you deemed to be time consuming.

* GOOD JOB! Recognising and celebrating effort, whether it’s yours or another member of your team’s is a great motivator.  Student, teacher or manager, we all want to be appreciated and if we work hard that effort needs to be recognised.  Recording goals and celebrating our achievements will help us to keep going when the going gets tough, which incidentally always seems to coincide with exam periods!

   * TAKE TIME OUT – Teacher burnout happens far too frequently. Nobody can work effectively when they are exhausted, so know your limitations and learn the warning signs to know when a break is needed.  Remember the process is just as important (if not more) than the end goal and every step you make shows change and growth. Recognise that everything you do towards your own development is positive and even if you don’t end up writing that book, speaking at that conference or finding that perfect way of presenting the subjunctive, you have gained purpose, confidence and furthered your passion and knowledge in your career. Be proud. And celebrate with chocolate cake.